James Madison

James Madison James Madison Jr. (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836) was an American statesman, lawyer, diplomat, philosopher and Founding Father who served as the fourth president of the United States from 1809 to 1817. He is hailed as the "Father of the Constitution" for his pivotal role in drafting and promoting the Constitution of the United States and the United States Bill of Rights. He co-wrote ''The Federalist Papers'', co-founded the Democratic-Republican Party, and served as the fifth United States secretary of State from 1801 to 1809.

Born into a prominent Virginia planter family, Madison served as a member of the Virginia House of Delegates and the Continental Congress during and after the American Revolutionary War. He became dissatisfied with the weak national government established by the Articles of Confederation and helped organize the Constitutional Convention, which produced a new constitution to supplant the Articles of Confederation. Madison's Virginia Plan served as the basis for the Constitutional Convention's deliberations, and he was one of the most influential individuals at the convention. Madison became one of the leaders in the movement to ratify the Constitution, and he joined with Alexander Hamilton and John Jay in writing ''The Federalist Papers'', a series of pro-ratification essays that was one of the most influential works of political science in American history.

After the ratification of the Constitution, Madison emerged as an important leader in the United States House of Representatives and served as a close adviser to President George Washington. He was the main force behind the ratification of the United States Bill of Rights, which enshrines guarantees of personal freedoms and rights within the Constitution. During the early 1790s, Madison came to oppose the economic program and accompanying centralization of power favored by Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton. Along with Thomas Jefferson, Madison organized the Democratic-Republican Party, which was, alongside Hamilton's Federalist Party, one of the nation's first major political parties. After Jefferson won the 1800 presidential election, Madison served as secretary of State from 1801 to 1809. In that position, he supervised the Louisiana Purchase, which doubled the size of the United States.

Madison succeeded Jefferson with a victory in the 1808 presidential election. After diplomatic protests and a trade embargo failed to end British attacks against American shipping, he led the United States into the War of 1812. The war was an administrative morass and ended inconclusively, but many Americans saw it as a successful "second war of independence" against Britain. The war convinced Madison of the necessity of a stronger federal government, and he presided over the creation of the Second Bank of the United States and the enactment of the protective Tariff of 1816. He retired from public office in 1817 and died in 1836. Madison is considered to be one of the most important Founding Fathers of the United States, and historians have generally ranked him as an above-average president. Provided by Wikipedia

1
by Madison, James
Published 1856
American Anti-Slavery Society

3
by Madison, James
Published 1893
Albert, Scott

4
by Madison, James
Published 1795
s.n

5
by Madison, James
Published 1796
Printed by Samuel H. Smith, no. 118, Chesnut Street

6
by Madison, James
Published 1791
Printed by T. Nicolson on the Main-Street below the capitol

9
by Madison, James
Published 1828
Printed and published by S.C. Ustick
Subjects: '; ...Madison, James / 1751-1836...

10
by Madison, James
Published 1829
Printed and published by G.C. Ustick
Subjects: '; ...Madison, James / 1751-1836...

11
by Madison, James
Published 1867
J.B. Lippincott

12
by Madison, James
Published 1900
G.P. Putnam's Sons
Subjects: '; ...Madison, James / 1751-1836...

13
by Madison, James
Published 1853
Published by J.C. McGuire exclusively for private distribution

14
by Madison, James
Published 1806
s.n

15
by Madison, James
Published 1806
America, printed, London, reprinted for J. Johnson by Ellerton & Byworth

16
by Madison, James
Published 1800
New-York, printed. London, re-printed for John Hatchard, Bookseller To The Queen, NO. 173, Piccadilly, by Henry Reynell, NO. 21, Piccadilly

18
by Madison, James H.
Published 2001
Palgrave Macmillan US

19
by Hamilton, Alexander, Madison, James, Jay, John
Published 2009
Palgrave Macmillan US

20
by Lowell, John
Published 1809
s.n
Subjects: '; ...Madison, James / 1751-1836...