John Jay

John Jay (, 1745 – May 17, 1829) was an American statesman, diplomat, abolitionist, signatory of the Treaty of Paris, and a Founding Father of the United States. He served from 1789 to 1795 as the first chief justice of the United States and from 1795 to 1801 as the second governor of New York. Jay directed U.S. foreign policy for much of the 1780s and was an important leader of the Federalist Party after the ratification of the United States Constitution in 1788.

Jay was born into a wealthy family of merchants and New York City government officials of French Huguenot and Dutch descent. He became a lawyer and joined the New York Committee of Correspondence, organizing American opposition to British policies such as the Intolerable Acts in the leadup to the American Revolution. Jay was elected to the First Continental Congress, where he signed the Continental Association, and to the Second Continental Congress, where he served as its president. From 1779 to 1782, Jay served as the ambassador to Spain; he persuaded Spain to provide financial aid to the fledgling United States. He also served as a negotiator of the Treaty of Paris, in which Britain recognized American independence. Following the end of the war, Jay served as Secretary of Foreign Affairs, directing United States foreign policy under the Articles of Confederation government. He also served as the first Secretary of State on an interim basis.

A proponent of strong, centralized government, Jay worked to ratify the United States Constitution in New York in 1788. He was a co-author of ''The Federalist Papers'' along with Alexander Hamilton and James Madison, and wrote five of the eighty-five essays. After the establishment of the new federal government, Jay was appointed by President George Washington the first Chief Justice of the United States, serving from 1789 to 1795. The Jay Court experienced a light workload, deciding just four cases over six years. In 1794, while serving as chief justice, Jay negotiated the highly controversial Jay Treaty with Britain. Jay received a handful of electoral votes in three of the first four presidential elections but never undertook a serious bid for the presidency.

Jay served as the governor of New York from 1795 to 1801. Although he successfully passed gradual emancipation legislation as governor of the state, he owned five slaves as late as 1800. In the waning days of President John Adams' administration, Jay was confirmed by the Senate for another term as chief justice, but he declined the position and retired to his farm in Westchester County, New York. Provided by Wikipedia

by Jay, John
Published 1786
Printed and sold by F. Childs, at the new printing-office, opposite the Coffee-House Bridge

by Jay, John
Published 1890
G.P. Putnam's Sons

by Jay, John
Published 1779
Philadelphia: printed September, 1779. Boston: re-printed by order of the General Assembly of the state of Massachusetts Bay
Other Authors: ...Jay, John...

by Hamilton, Alexander, Madison, James, Jay, John
Published 2009
Palgrave Macmillan US

Published 1779
Philadelphia: printed. Poughkeepsie: re-printed by John Holt, printer to the state of New-York
Other Authors: ...Jay, John...

by Hamilton, Alexander
Published 1799
Printed and sold by John Tiebout, no. 358 Pearl-Street
Other Authors: ...Jay, John...

by Harper, Robert Goodloe
Published 1796
Published by Thomas Bradford, printer book-seller & stationer, no. 8, South Front-Street
Other Authors: ...Jay, John...

Published 1779
Philadelphia, printed: New London: re-printed by T. Green
Other Authors: ...Jay, John...

Published 1779
Printed by David C. Claypoole, printer to the Honorable the Congress
Other Authors: ...Jay, John...