Obstetric consequences of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C)
These findings are based on very low quality of evidence and preclude us from drawing conclusions regarding causality. However, while the exact size of the greater risk from FGM/C is unclear, the findings provide evidence of serious harmful consequences from FGM/C.
Knowledge Centre for the Health Services at The Norwegian Institute of Public Health (NIPH)
|Collection:||National Center for Biotechnology Information - Collection details see MPG.ReNa|
|Summary:||These findings are based on very low quality of evidence and preclude us from drawing conclusions regarding causality. However, while the exact size of the greater risk from FGM/C is unclear, the findings provide evidence of serious harmful consequences from FGM/C.|
Women who have undergone FGM/C seem to be more likely than non-cut women to experience prolonged labor, obstetric tears, instrumental delivery, obstetric hemorrhage, and difficult delivery. 2. Women with FGM/C type III (infibulation) seem to be more likely than women with FGM/C type I-II (clitoridectomy or excision) to experience problems during delivery. There was not found a significant difference in risk of cesarean section or episiotomy between women with FGM/C and women without FGM/C. 3. There was not found a significant difference in risk of obstetric tears, cesarean section, or episiotomy between women with FGM/C type I and women with FGM/C type II. 4. There were insufficient data for us to conclude whether the risk of other obstetric complications is higher among women with FGM/C compared to women with no FGM/C and whether various FGM/C types differentially affect the risk of other obstetric complications.
This report includes results from only unadjusted analyses from the included studies. We have completed additional analyses based on adjusted analyses and studies of prospective designs in order to test the validity of the results presented in the report. Our results confirm the findings in the report. The updated analyses are freely available online in Obstetrics and Gynecology International. Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a traditional practice that involves the partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. This systematic review aimed to fill a gap in synthesized evidence of the obstetric sequelae of FGM/C. We included 44 primary studies, 28 of which compared groups of women with FGM/C to women with no or different types of genital modifications. The main findings are:1.
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