Timur

Timur facial reconstruction from skull Timur ( ''Temūr'', Chagatai: '; 9 April 1336 – 18 February 1405), sometimes spelled Taimur and historically best known as Amir Timur or Tamerlane''' ( ''Temūr(-i) Lang'', "Timur the Lame"), was a Turco-Mongol Persianate conqueror. As the founder of the Timurid Empire in and around modern-day Iran and Central Asia, he became the first ruler of the Timurid dynasty, and he is widely regarded to be one of the greatest military leaders in history. Timur is considered as a great patron of art and architecture, as he interacted with intellectuals such as Ibn Khaldun and Hafiz-i Abru.According to John Joseph Saunders, Timur was "the product of an Islamized and Iranized society", and not steppe nomadic.

Born into the Barlas confederation in Transoxiana (in modern-day Uzbekistan) on 9 April 1336, Timur gained control of the western Chagatai Khanate by 1370. From that base, he led military campaigns across Western, South and Central Asia, the Caucasus and southern Russia, and emerged as the most powerful ruler in the Muslim world after defeating the Mamluks of Egypt and Syria, the emerging Ottoman Empire, and the declining Delhi Sultanate. From these conquests, he founded the Timurid Empire, but this empire fragmented shortly after his death.

Timur was the last of the great nomadic conquerors of the Eurasian Steppe, and his empire set the stage for the rise of the more structured and lasting Islamic Gunpowder Empires in the 16th and 17th centuries. Timur envisioned the restoration of the Mongol Empire of Genghis Khan (died 1227) and according to Gérard Chaliand, saw himself as Genghis Khan's heir. Though not a Borjigid or a descendant of Genghis Khan, he clearly sought to invoke the legacy of the latter's conquests during his lifetime. According to Beatrice Forbes Manz, "in his formal correspondence Temur continued throughout his life to portray himself as the restorer of Chinggisid rights. He justified his Iranian, Mamluk, and Ottoman campaigns as a re-imposition of legitimate Mongol control over lands taken by usurpers." To legitimize his conquests, Timur relied on Islamic symbols and language, referred to himself as the "Sword of Islam", and patronized educational and religious institutions. He converted nearly all the Borjigin leaders to Islam during his lifetime. Timur decisively defeated the Christian Knights Hospitaller at the Siege of Smyrna, styling himself a ''ghazi''. By the end of his reign, Timur had gained complete control over all the remnants of the Chagatai Khanate, the Ilkhanate, and the Golden Horde, and even attempted to restore the Yuan dynasty in China.

Timur's armies were inclusively multi-ethnic and were feared throughout Asia, Africa, and Europe, sizable parts of which his campaigns laid to waste. Scholars estimate that his military campaigns caused the deaths of 17 million people, amounting to about 5% of the world population at the time.

He was the grandfather of the Timurid sultan, astronomer and mathematician Ulugh Beg, who ruled Central Asia from 1411 to 1449, and the great-great-great-grandfather of Babur (1483–1530), founder of the Mughal Empire, which ruled parts of South Asia for over three centuries, from 1526 until 1857. Provided by Wikipedia

1
by Tı̄mūr
Published 1783
At the Clarendon-Press. M DCC LXXXIII. Sold by J. Murray, No. 32 Fleetstreet, London; and by D. Prince and J. Cooke, Oxford

2
by Tı̄mūr
Published 1785
printed by Daniel Stuart
Subjects: '; ...Timur / 1336-1405 / Early works to 1800...

5
by Timur Muhiddine
Published 2000
Institut français d’études anatoliennes

6
by Werner, Timur
Published 2018
Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden
...Timur Werner stellt eine stringente Modellierung permanentmagneterregter Synchronmaschinen vor und...

7
by Lutfullin, Timur
Published 2018
Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft mbH & Co. KG

8
by Grines, Viacheslav Z., Medvedev, Timur V., Pochinka, Olga V.
Published 2016
Springer International Publishing

9
by Gödde, Daniel
Published 2005
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Other Authors: '; ...Sellmann, Timur...

10
Published 2014
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Other Authors: '; ...Gök, Timur...

11
Published 2017
Palgrave Macmillan US
Other Authors: '; ...Dadabaev, Timur...

12
Published 2005
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Other Authors: '; ...Linde, Timur...

13
Published 2012
Palgrave Macmillan UK
Other Authors: '; ...Kuran, Timur...