Thomas Paine

Portrait by [[Laurent Dabos]] ({{circa}} 1792) Thomas Paine (born Thomas Pain) ( – June 8, 1809) was an English-born American political activist, philosopher, political theorist, and revolutionary. He authored the two most influential pamphlets at the start of the American Revolution and inspired the patriots in 1776 to declare independence from Great Britain. His ideas reflected Enlightenment-era ideals of transnational human rights. Historian Saul K. Padover described him as "a corsetmaker by trade, a journalist by profession, and a propagandist by inclination".

Born in Thetford in the English county of Norfolk, Paine migrated to the British American colonies in 1774 with the help of Benjamin Franklin, arriving just in time to participate in the American Revolution. Virtually every rebel read (or listened to a reading of) his powerful pamphlet ''Common Sense'' (1776), proportionally the all-time best-selling American title, which catalysed the rebellious demand for independence from Great Britain. His ''The American Crisis'' (1776–1783) was a pro-revolutionary pamphlet series. ''Common Sense'' was so influential that John Adams said: "Without the pen of the author of ''Common Sense'', the sword of Washington would have been raised in vain". Paine lived in France for most of the 1790s, becoming deeply involved in the French Revolution. He wrote ''Rights of Man'' (1791), in part a defence of the French Revolution against its critics. His attacks on Anglo-Irish conservative writer Edmund Burke led to a trial and conviction ''in absentia'' in England in 1792 for the crime of seditious libel.

The British government of William Pitt the Younger, worried by the possibility that the French Revolution might spread to England, had begun suppressing works that espoused radical philosophies. Paine's work, which advocated the right of the people to overthrow their government, was duly targeted, with a writ for his arrest issued in early 1792. Paine fled to France in September where, despite not being able to speak French, he was quickly elected to the French National Convention. The Girondists regarded him as an ally. Consequently, the Montagnards, especially Maximilien Robespierre, regarded him as an enemy.

In December 1793, he was arrested and was taken to Luxembourg Prison in Paris. While in prison, he continued to work on ''The Age of Reason'' (1793–1794). James Monroe, a future President of the United States, used his diplomatic connections to get Paine released in November 1794. Paine became notorious because of his pamphlets. In ''The Age of Reason'' he advocated deism, promoted reason and free thought and argued against institutionalized religion in general and Christian doctrine in particular. He published the pamphlet ''Agrarian Justice'' (1797), discussing the origins of property and introduced the concept of a guaranteed minimum income through a one-time inheritance tax on landowners. In 1802, he returned to the U.S. When he died on June 8, 1809, only six people attended his funeral as he had been ostracized for his ridicule of Christianity. Provided by Wikipedia

1
by Paine, Thomas
Published 1793
Printed for J. Ridgway, No. 1, York Street, St. James's Square

2
by Paine, Thomas
Published 1791
Printed for J. Ridgway, No. 1, York Street, St. James's Square

4
by Paine, Thomas
Published 1796
Paris: printed by Hartley, Adlard and Son, Rue Neuve De Berry, No. 5, Aux Champs Elysees. London: reprinted for D.I. Eaton, No. 74, Newgate-Street

7
by Paine, Thomas
Published 1792
printed for J. Parsons

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by Paine, Thomas
Published 1791
[printed for G. Burnet, R. Cross, P. Wogan, W. Wilson, P. Byrne, [and 31 others in Dublin]

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by Paine, Thomas
Published 1792
printed for T. Parsons

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by Paine, Thomas
Published 1792
Printed for and sold by T. Browne, Russel-Court, Drury-Lane
Subjects: '; ...Paine, Thomas / 1737-1809 / Rights of man...

12
by Paine, Thomas
Published 1796
printed and sold by Daniel Isaac Eaton, No. 74, Newgate-Street

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by Paine, Thomas
Published 1797
printed for Evans and Bone, No. 120. Holborn-Hill

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by Paine, Thomas
Published 1795
printed for H. D. Symonds, No. 20, Paternoster Row

15
by Paine, Thomas
Published 1782
Philadelphia, printed: London, reprinted, for C. Dilly, in The Poultry

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by Paine, Thomas
Published 1791
printed for J. Ridgway, NO. 1. York-Street. ST. James's-Square

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by Paine, Thomas
Alex Catalogue

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by Paine, Thomas
Alex Catalogue

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by Paine, Thomas
University of Virginia Library