Massachusetts

wild turkey | fish = Cod | flower = Mayflower | insect = Ladybug | mammal = Right whale, Morgan horse, Tabby cat, Boston Terrier | reptile = Garter snake | tree = American elm | beverage = Cranberry juice | colors = Blue, green, cranberry | dance = Square dance | food = Cranberry, corn muffin, navy bean, Boston cream pie, chocolate chip cookie, Boston cream doughnut | fossil = Dinosaur Tracks | gemstone = Rhodonite | mineral = Babingtonite | poem = Blue Hills of Massachusetts | rock = Roxbury Puddingstone | shell = New England Neptune, ''Neptunea lyrata decemcostata'' | ship = ''Schooner Ernestina'' | slogan = ''Make It Yours'',
''The Spirit of America'' | soil = Paxton | sport = Basketball | image_route = MA Route 28.svg | image_quarter = 2000 MA Proof.png | quarter_release_date = 2000 }}

Massachusetts (, ; ), officially the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is a state in the New England region of the Northeastern United States. It borders the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Maine to its east, Connecticut and Rhode Island to its south, New Hampshire and Vermont to its north, and New York to its west. Massachusetts is the sixth-smallest state by land area. With over seven million residents as of 2020, it is the most populous state in New England, the 16th-most-populous in the country, and the third-most densely populated, after New Jersey and Rhode Island.

Massachusetts was a site of early English colonization. The Plymouth Colony was founded in 1620 by the Pilgrims of the ''Mayflower''. In 1630, the Massachusetts Bay Colony, taking its name from the Indigenous Massachusett people, also established settlements in Boston and Salem. In 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced one of America's most infamous cases of mass hysteria, the Salem witch trials. In the late 18th century, Boston became known as the "Cradle of Liberty" for the agitation there that later led to the American Revolution. In 1786, Shays' Rebellion, a populist revolt led by disaffected American Revolutionary War veterans, influenced the United States Constitutional Convention. Originally dependent on agriculture, fishing, and trade, Massachusetts was transformed into a manufacturing center during the Industrial Revolution. Before the American Civil War, the state was a center for the abolitionist, temperance, and transcendentalist movements. During the 20th century, the state's economy shifted from manufacturing to services; and in the 21st century, Massachusetts has become the global leader in biotechnology, and also excels in artificial intelligence, engineering, higher education, finance, and maritime trade.

The state's capital and most populous city, as well as its cultural and financial center, is Boston. Other major cities are Worcester, Springfield and Cambridge. Massachusetts is also home to the urban core of Greater Boston, the largest metropolitan area in New England and a region profoundly influential upon American history, academia, and the research economy. Massachusetts has a reputation for social and political progressivism; becoming the only U.S. state with a right to shelter law, and the first U.S. state, and one of the earliest jurisdictions in the world, to legally recognize same-sex marriage. Boston is considered a hub of LGBT culture and activism in the United States. Harvard University in Cambridge is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States, with the largest financial endowment of any university in the world. Both Harvard and MIT, also in Cambridge, are perennially ranked as either the most or among the most highly regarded academic institutions in the world. Massachusetts's public-school students place among the top tier in the world in academic performance.

Massachusetts is the most educated and one of the most highly developed and wealthiest U.S. states, ranking first in the percentage of population 25 and over with either a bachelor's degree or advanced degree, first on both the American Human Development Index and the standard Human Development Index, first in per capita income, and as of 2023, first in median income. Consequently, Massachusetts typically ranks as the top U.S. state, as well as the most expensive state, for residents to live in. Provided by Wikipedia

7
by Farmer of Massachusetts
Published 1792
By Isaiah Thomas & Leonard Worcester, for Isaiah Thomas. Sold at his bookstore in Worcester, and by said Thomas, and Andrews, in Boston

9
by Chitty, Joseph
Published 1827
Wells and Lilly
Other Authors: ...Member of the Massachusetts Bar...

10
by Chitty, Joseph
Published 1831
J. Grigg
Other Authors: ...Member of the Massachusetts Bar...

11
Published 1786
Printed by Adams and Nourse, printers to the Honorable General Court
...Massachusetts...

13
by Kellen, William Vail
Published 1888
Wright & Potter Printing Co., state printers
...Massachusetts...

17
by Spalding, Warren Foster
Published 1908
Massachusetts Prison Association
...Massachusetts...

19
Published 1757
Printed by John Draper, printer to the Honourable His Majesty's Council
...Massachusetts Council...