James Hutton

Hutton painted by [[Henry Raeburn|Sir Henry Raeburn]] (1776) James Hutton (; 3 June 1726 – 26 March 1797) was a Scottish geologist, experimental agriculturalist, chemical manufacturer, naturalist and physician. Often referred to as the ‘father’ of modern geology, his work played a key role in establishing geology as a modern science.

Through reasoned study of features in the coastlines and landscape of his native Scottish lowlands, Hutton developed the theory that geological features were not static but underwent perpetual transformation over long periods of time. He argued that the earth could not be young and advanced the idea that its remote history can be inferred from evidence in present-day rocks. He was thus an early proponent of what came later to be called uniformitarianism, the science which explains features of the Earth's crust by means of natural processes over the long geologic time scale.

Hutton also put forward the thesis of a ‘system of the habitable Earth’ viewed as a deistic mechanism designed to keep the world eternally suitable for humans, an early attempt to formulate what today might be called the anthropic principle. Though some of his ideas were also considered by other contemporaries such as the French naturalist Georges-Louis Leclerc de Buffon, it is chiefly from Hutton's pioneering work in geology that we derive our present-day understanding of deep time. Provided by Wikipedia

1
by Hutton, James
Published 1777
printed for, and sold by C. Elliot, Parliament-Square, and Richardson and Urquhart, London

2
by Hutton, James
Published 1794
printed for Messrs Cadell, Junior, and Davies, London

3
by Hutton, James
Published 1795
printed for Messrs Cadell, Junior, and Davies, London; and William Creech, Edinburgh

4
by Hutton, James
Published 1755
printed for J. Robinson in Ludgate-Street, W. Owen at Temple-Bar, and G. Woodfall, at Charing Cross

7
by Hutton, James
Published 1850
s.n

8
by Hutton, James Harriman
Published 1797
printed by R. Trewman and Son

9
by Smith, Adam
Published 1795
Printed for T. Cadell and W. Davies
Other Authors: '; ...Hutton, James...