Hugo Grotius

Portrait of Hugo Grotius<br />by [[Michiel Jansz. van Mierevelt]], 1631 Hugo Grotius (; 10 April 1583 – 28 August 1645), also known as Huig de Groot () or Hugo de Groot (), was a Dutch humanist, diplomat, lawyer, theologian and jurist.

A teenage intellectual prodigy, he was born in Delft and studied at Leiden University. He was imprisoned for his involvement in the intra-Calvinist disputes of the Dutch Republic, but escaped hidden in a chest of books. Grotius wrote most of his major works in exile in France.

Hugo Grotius was a major figure in the fields of philosophy, political theory and law during the sixteenth and seventeenth century. Along with the earlier works of Francisco de Vitoria and Alberico Gentili, he laid the foundations for international law, based on natural law in its Protestant side. Two of his books have had a lasting impact in the field of international law: ''De jure belli ac pacis'' [''On the Law of War and Peace''] dedicated to Louis XIII of France and the ''Mare Liberum'' [''The Free Seas'']. Grotius has also contributed significantly to the evolution of the notion of ''rights''. Before him, rights were above all perceived as attached to objects; after him, they are seen as belonging to persons, as the expression of an ability to act or as a means of realizing something.

It is thought that Hugo Grotius was not the first to formulate the international society doctrine, but he was one of the first to define expressly the idea of one society of states, governed not by force or warfare but by actual laws and mutual agreement to enforce those laws. As Hedley Bull declared in 1990: "The idea of international society which Grotius propounded was given concrete expression in the Peace of Westphalia, and Grotius may be considered the intellectual father of this first general peace settlement of modern times." Additionally, his contributions to Arminian theology helped provide the seeds for later Arminian-based movements, such as Methodism and Pentecostalism; Grotius is acknowledged as a significant figure in the Arminian-Calvinist debate. Because of his theological underpinning of free trade, he is also considered an "economic theologist".

Grotius was also a playwright, and poet. His thinking returned to the forefront after the First World War. Provided by Wikipedia

1
by Grotius, Hugo
Published 1782
printed for J. Dodsley, Pall-Mall

2
by Grotius, Hugo
Published 1716
Argraphwyd yn y Mwythig gan John Rhydderch yn y Flwyddyn

3
by Grotius, Hugo
Published 1715
printed for D. Brown; T. Ward; and W. Meares

4
by Grotius, Hugo
Published 1703
typis academicis, impensis Tho. Webster, Bibliop. Cantabrigiae

5
by Grotius, Hugo
Published 1729
printed for James and John Knapton, at the Crown in St. Paul's Church-Yard

7
by Grotius, Hugo
Published 1738
printed for W. Innys and R. Manby, J. and P. Knapton, D. Brown, T. Osborn, and E. Wicksteed

8
by Grotius, Hugo
Published 1732
printed by R. Fleming and Company, for the author, and sold by most Booksellers in Town

10
by Grotius, Hugo
Published 1767
printed for John Beecroft; John Rivington; L. Hawes, and Co. R. Horsfield; W. Johnston; and B. Law

11
by Grotius, Hugo
Published 1745
ex officina Roberti Urie et sociorum, sumtibus Joan. Barry, apud quem veneunt

12
by Grotius, Hugo
Published 1727
impensis Jos. Smith, Guil. Mears, Jos. Pote, & N. Moody, Bibliopolarum Londinensium

14
by Grotius, Hugo
Published 1797
re-printed by E. Piercy, in Bull-Street

16
by Grotius, Hugo
Published 1786
printed for J. F. and C. Rivington, J. Buckland, B. Law, W Ottridge, and R. Baldwin

17
by Grotius, Hugo
Published 1793
printed for B. Law and Son, W. Otridge, R.Baldwin, and F. and C. Rivington

18
by Grotius, Hugo
Published 1707
excudebant h?redes & successores Andre? Anderson, Regiae Majestatis, Urbis & Academiae Typographi, anno Dom

19
by Grotius, Hugo
Published 1777
printed for J. F. and C. Rivington, R. Horsefield, B. Law, R. Baldwin, E. Johnston, S. Bladon, and T. Beecroft

20
by Grotius, Hugo
Published 1724
printed; and sold by C. Rivington in St. Paul's Church-Yard; J. Lacy, in Fleet-Street; and John Clarke, under the Royal-Exchange, Cornhill