Demosthenes

[[Bust (sculpture)|Bust]] of Demosthenes ([[Louvre]], [[Paris]], [[France]]) Demosthenes (; ''Dēmosthénēs''; ; 384 – 12 October 322 BC) was a Greek statesman and orator of ancient Athens. His orations constitute a significant expression of contemporary Athenian intellectual prowess and provide an insight into the politics and culture of ancient Greece during the 4th century BC. Demosthenes learned rhetoric by studying the speeches of previous great orators. He delivered his first judicial speeches at the age of 20, in which he argued effectively to gain from his guardians what was left of his inheritance. For a time, Demosthenes made his living as a professional speech-writer (logographer) and a lawyer, writing speeches for use in private legal suits.

Demosthenes grew interested in politics during his time as a logographer, and in 354 BC he gave his first public political speeches. He went on to devote his most productive years to opposing Macedon's expansion. He idealized his city and strove throughout his life to restore Athens' supremacy and motivate his compatriots against Philip II of Macedon. He sought to preserve his city's freedom and to establish an alliance against Macedon, in an unsuccessful attempt to impede Philip's plans to expand his influence southward by conquering all the other Greek states.

After Philip's death, Demosthenes played a leading part in his city's uprising against the new king of Macedonia, Alexander the Great. However, his efforts failed and the revolt was met with a harsh Macedonian reaction. To prevent a similar revolt against his own rule, Alexander's successor in this region, Antipater, sent his men to track Demosthenes down. Demosthenes took his own life, in order to avoid being arrested by Archias of Thurii, Antipater's confidant.

The ''Alexandrian Canon'' compiled by Aristophanes of Byzantium and Aristarchus of Samothrace recognised Demosthenes as one of the ten greatest Attic orators and logographers. Longinus likened Demosthenes to a blazing thunderbolt, and argued that he "perfected to the utmost the tone of lofty speech, living passions, copiousness, readiness, speed". Quintilian extolled him as ''lex orandi'' ("the standard of oratory"), and Cicero said about him that ''inter omnis unus excellat'' ("he stands alone among all the orators"), and he also acclaimed him as "the perfect orator" who lacked nothing. Provided by Wikipedia

1
by Demosthenes
Published 1702
printed for Jacob Tonson, within Grays-Inn-Gate, next Grays-Inn-Lane

2
by Demosthenes
Published 1799
Printed for the author

3
by Demosthenes
Published 1755
apud Joseph. & Thomam Pote

4
by Demosthenes
Published 1757
printed for W. Johnston, at the Golden-Ball, in St. Paul's Church-Yard
Subjects: '; ...Demosthenes / Translations into English / Early works to 1800...

5
by Demosthenes
Published 1763
Printed for William Johnston, in Ludgate-street

6
by Demosthenes
Published 1792
Printed for W. Sleater and W. M'kenzie

7
by Demosthenes
Published 1756
Printed at the University Press by William Sleater

8
by Demosthenes
Published 1748
apud R. Montagu. Etonæ, apud Jos. Pote

9
by Demosthenes
Published 1782
in aedibus academicis, excudebat Andreas Foulis

10
by Demosthenes
Published 1774
typis academicis apud Johannem Woodyer

11
by Demosthenes
Published 1777
printed for T. Longman

12
by Demosthenes
Published 1731
[typis academicis: curâ Cornelii Crownfield. Prostant venales apud Gul. Thurlbourn Cantab. & Gul. Innys Londin., & Joan. Brindley [London]

13
by Demosthenes
Published 1774
typis academicis. Apud Johannem Woodyer
Subjects: '; ...Demosthenes / Fiction / Early works to 1800...

14
by Demosthenes
Published 1769
[excudebat Ioannes Archdeacon] typis academicis. M.DCC.LXIX. Impensis Danielis Prince, Oxoniae; et Ioannis Woodyer, Cantabrigiae]

15
by Demosthenes
Published 1778
apud J. Pote, J. Rivington et Filios, T. Caslon, necnon Fielding & Walker Socios

16
by Demosthenes
Published 1763
printed for William Johnston, in Ludgate-Street
Subjects: '; ...Demosthenes / Early works to 1800...

17
by Demosthenes
Published 1770
printed for W. Johnston, Ludgate Street

18
by Demosthenes
Published 1744
printed for J. and R. Tonson and S. Draper in the Strand
Subjects: '; ...Demosthenes / Translations into English / Early works to 1800...

19
by Demosthenes
Published 1750
in aedibus academicis excudebant Robertus et Andreas Foulis, Academiae Typographi
Subjects: '; ...Demosthenes / Fiction / Early works to 1800...

20
by Demosthenes
Published 1756
printed for W. Johnston, in St. Paul's Church-Yard