Demosthenes

[[Bust (sculpture)|Bust]] of Demosthenes ([[Louvre]], Paris, France) Demosthenes (; ; ; 384 – 12 October 322 BC) was a Greek statesman and orator of ancient Athens. His orations constitute a significant expression of contemporary Athenian intellectual prowess and provide an insight into the politics and culture of ancient Greece during the 4th century BC. Demosthenes learned rhetoric by studying the speeches of previous great orators. He delivered his first judicial speeches at the age of 20, in which he argued effectively to gain from his guardians what was left of his inheritance. For a time, Demosthenes made his living as a professional speech-writer (logographer) and a lawyer, writing speeches for use in private legal suits.

Demosthenes grew interested in politics during his time as a logographer, and in 354 BC he gave his first public political speeches. He went on to devote his most productive years to opposing Macedon's expansion. He idealized his city and strove throughout his life to restore Athens' supremacy and motivate his compatriots against Philip II of Macedon. He sought to preserve his city's freedom and to establish an alliance against Macedon, in an unsuccessful attempt to impede Philip's plans to expand his influence southward by conquering all the other Greek states.

After Philip's death, Demosthenes played a leading part in his city's uprising against the new king of Macedonia, Alexander the Great. However, his efforts failed and the revolt was met with a harsh Macedonian reaction. To prevent a similar revolt against his own rule, Alexander's successor in this region, Antipater, sent his men to track Demosthenes down. Demosthenes took his own life, to avoid being arrested by Archias of Thurii, Antipater's confidant.

The ''Alexandrian Canon'' compiled by Aristophanes of Byzantium and Aristarchus of Samothrace recognised Demosthenes as one of the ten greatest Attic orators and logographers. Longinus likened Demosthenes to a blazing thunderbolt and argued that he "perfected to the utmost the tone of lofty speech, living passions, copiousness, readiness, speed." Quintilian extolled him as ("the standard of oratory"). Cicero said of him that ("he stands alone among all the orators"), and also acclaimed him as "the perfect orator" who lacked nothing. Provided by Wikipedia

1
by Demosthenes
Published 1769
[excudebat Ioannes Archdeacon] typis academicis. M.DCC.LXIX. Impensis Danielis Prince, Oxoniae; et Ioannis Woodyer, Cantabrigiae]

2
by Demosthenes
Published 1702
printed for Jacob Tonson, within Grays-Inn-Gate, next Grays-Inn-Lane

3
by Demosthenes
Published 1778
apud J. Pote, J. Rivington et Filios, T. Caslon, necnon Fielding & Walker Socios

4
by Demosthenes
Published 1777
printed for T. Longman

5
by Demosthenes
Published 1731
[typis academicis: curâ Cornelii Crownfield. Prostant venales apud Gul. Thurlbourn Cantab. & Gul. Innys Londin., & Joan. Brindley [London]

6
by Demosthenes
Published 1763
printed for William Johnston, in Ludgate-Street
Subjects: '; ...Demosthenes / Early works to 1800...

7
by Demosthenes
Published 1770
printed for W. Johnston, Ludgate Street

8
by Demosthenes
Published 1744
printed for J. and R. Tonson and S. Draper in the Strand
Subjects: '; ...Demosthenes / Translations into English / Early works to 1800...

9
by Demosthenes
Published 1750
in aedibus academicis excudebant Robertus et Andreas Foulis, Academiae Typographi
Subjects: '; ...Demosthenes / Fiction / Early works to 1800...

10
by Demosthenes
Published 1756
printed for W. Johnston, in St. Paul's Church-Yard

11
by Demosthenes
Published 1757
printed for A. Millar in the Strand
Subjects: '; ...Demosthenes / Translations into English / Early works to 1800...

12
by Demosthenes
Published 1764
apud J. Rivington, L. Hawes, H. Clarke, & R. Collins; Etonæ, apud Jos. Pote

13
by Demosthenes
Published 1746
typis J. Hughs. Impensis A. Ward, C. Hitch & W. Redmayne; prostant etiam apud J. & R. Bonwicke, T. Longman & W. Sewell, & J. Newton

14
by Demosthenes
Published 1726
typis S. Palmer. Impensis A. Bettesworth, B. Motte, & J. Redmayne; prostant etiam apud J. & R. Bonwicke, J. Osborn & T. Longman, & J. Newton

15
by Demosthenes
Published 1791
excudit T. Pote; apud quem veneunt. Veneunt etiam Londini apud J. Rivington et filios, G. G. J. et J. Robinson, et Gul. Ginger

16
by Demosthenes
Published 1726
typis S. Palmer. Impensis A. Bettesworth, B. Motte, & J. Redmayne; prostant etiam apud J. Knapton, J. & B. Sprint, J. Batley, & A. Ward

17
by Demosthenes
Published 1754
ex ædibus academicis

18
by Demosthenes
Published 1755
impensis C. Bathurst, in Fleet-Street

19
by Demosthenes
Published 1773
sumptibus academicis excudebat R. Marchbank. Prostant apud T. Ewing

20
by Demosthenes
Published 1731
[typis academicis: curâ Cornelii Crownfield, Celeb. Acad. Typog. Prostant venales apud Bibliopolas Gul. Thurlbourn Cantab. & Gul. Innys Londin. in Coemeterio Divi Pauli, & Joan. Brindley in Vico New Bond Street [London]