Civilian

Wounded civilians arrive at a hospital in [[Aleppo In general, a civilian is "a person who is not a member of the police, the armed forces, or a fire department." The definition distinguishes from persons whose duties involve risking their lives to protect the public at large from hazardous situations such as terrorism, riots, conflagrations, and wars. Criminals are also excluded from the category, as members of the public, politicians, and the media want to distinguish between those who are law-abiding and those who are not.

Under international humanitarian law, civilians are "persons who are not members of the armed forces" and are not "combatants if they [don't] carry arms openly and respect the laws and customs of war". It is slightly different from a non-combatant, as some non-combatants are not civilians (for example, military chaplains attached to the belligerent party or military personnel serving with a neutral country). Civilians in the territories of a party to an armed conflict are entitled to certain privileges under the customary laws of war and international treaties such as the Fourth Geneva Convention. The privileges that they enjoy under international law depends on whether the conflict is an internal one (a civil war) or an international one. Provided by Wikipedia

1
by Civilian
Published 1852
Wildy & Sons

2
by Civilian
Published 1823
Printed for J.M. Richardson

5
by Bengal civilian
Published 1845
Smith, Elder and Co

7
Published 1999
National Academy Press
...Institute of Medicine (U.S.) Committee on R & D Needs for Improving Civilian Medical Response...

8
Published 2016
the National Academies Press
Table of Contents: '; ... civilial exchange of knowledge and practices in trauma care -- Appendix D: Military and civilian trauma...