Cicero

First-century AD bust of Cicero in the [[Capitoline Museums]], Rome Marcus Tullius Cicero).}} ( ; ; 3 January 106 – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, lawyer, scholar, philosopher and Academic Skeptic, who tried to uphold optimate principles during the political crises that led to the establishment of the Roman Empire. His extensive writings include treatises on rhetoric, philosophy and politics, and he is considered one of Rome's greatest orators and prose stylists. He came from a wealthy municipal family of the Roman equestrian order, and served as consul in 63 BC.

His influence on the Latin language was immense. He wrote more than three-quarters of surviving Latin literature from the period of his adult life, and it has been said that subsequent prose was either a reaction against or a return to his style, not only in Latin but in European languages up to the 19th century. Cicero introduced into Latin the arguments of the chief schools of Hellenistic philosophy and created a Latin philosophical vocabulary with neologisms such as ''evidentia'', ''humanitas'', ''qualitas'', ''quantitas'', and ''essentia'', distinguishing himself as a translator and philosopher.

Though he was an accomplished orator and successful lawyer, Cicero believed his political career was his most important achievement. It was during his consulship that the second Catilinarian conspiracy attempted to overthrow the government through an attack on the city by outside forces, and Cicero suppressed the revolt by summarily and controversially executing five conspirators. During the chaotic middle period of the 1st century BC, marked by civil wars and the dictatorship of Julius Caesar, Cicero championed a return to the traditional republican government. Following Caesar's death, Cicero became an enemy of Mark Antony in the ensuing power struggle, attacking him in a series of speeches. He was proscribed as an enemy of the state by the Second Triumvirate and consequently executed by soldiers operating on their behalf in 43 BC after having been intercepted during an attempted flight from the Italian peninsula. His severed hands and head were then, as a final revenge of Mark Antony, displayed on the Rostra.

Petrarch's rediscovery of Cicero's letters is often credited for initiating the 14th-century Renaissance in public affairs, humanism, and classical Roman culture. According to Polish historian Tadeusz Zieliński, "the Renaissance was above all things a revival of Cicero, and only after him and through him of the rest of Classical antiquity." The peak of Cicero's authority and prestige came during the 18th-century Enlightenment, and his impact on leading Enlightenment thinkers and political theorists such as John Locke, David Hume, Montesquieu and Edmund Burke was substantial. His works rank among the most influential in European culture, and today still constitute one of the most important bodies of primary material for the writing and revision of Roman history, especially the last days of the Roman Republic. Provided by Wikipedia

1
by Cicero, Marcus Tullius
Published 2011
Open Book Publishers
Subjects: '; ...Cicero, Marcus Tullius / In Verrem...

2
by Cicero, Marcus Tullius
Published 2018
Open Book Publishers

3
by Cicero, Marcus Tullius
Published 1793
Typis D. Humphreys: Impensis autem J. Crukshank, W. Young, T. Dobson, M. Carey, H. & P. Rice, C. Cist, & P. Hall

4
by Cicero, Marcus Tullius
Published 1754
Printed by R. Urie

5
by Cicero, Marcus Tullius
Published 1720
Excudebant Gulielmus Brown, & Societas, &abeedem in Bibliopolio ejus in area parliamentarie, prostant voenales, Anno Domini
Subjects: '; ...Cicero, Marcus Tullius / Early works to 1800...

6
by Cicero, Marcus Tullius
Published 1765
Printed for G. Keith, at the Bible-and-Crown, in Gracechurch-street

9
by Cicero, Marcus Tullius
Published 1762
Impensis A. Kincaid & J. Bell, G. Gordon, J. Brown, & C. Wright; apud quos venales prostant

10
by Cicero, Marcus Tullius
Published 1743
printed for Richard Manby, on Ludgate-Hill, over-against the Old Bailey
Subjects: '; ...Cicero, Marcus Tullius / Correspondence / Early works to 1800...

11
by Cicero, Marcus Tullius
Published 1744
Printed and sold by B. Franklin

12
by Cicero, Marcus Tullius
Published 1784
in aedibus academicis, excudebat Andreas Foulis, Academiae Typographus

13
by Cicero, Marcus Tullius
Published 1732
typis academicis. Sumtibus Corn. Crownfield, celeberrimae academiae typographi. Prostant apud J. & J. Knapton, J. Crownfield, R. Knaplock, & A. Vanden-Hoeck, bibliopolas Londinenses

14
by Cicero, Marcus Tullius
Published 1778
Excudebat Andreas Foulis

16
by Cicero, Marcus Tullius
Published 1702
ex officinâ Eliz. Redmayne
Subjects: '; ...Cicero, Marcus Tullius...

17
by Cicero, Marcus Tullius
Published 1748
in aedibus academicis excudebant Rob. et And. Foulis

18
by Cicero, Marcus Tullius
Published 1778
printed for Fielding and Walker, Pater-Noster Row

19
by Cicero, Marcus Tullius
Published 1748
in aedibus academicis excudebant Rob. et And. Foulis

20
by Cicero, Marcus Tullius
Published 1732
Typis Samuelis Fulleri, & Impensis ejusdem, ad insigne Globi Terraquei in vico dicto Meath-street
Subjects: '; ...Cicero, Marcus Tullius / Early works to 1800...