Cicero

A first-century AD bust of Cicero in the [[Capitoline Museums]], Rome Marcus Tullius Cicero).}} (; ; 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC. He came from a wealthy municipal family of the Roman equestrian order, and is considered one of Rome's greatest orators and prose stylists.

His influence on the Latin language was so immense that the subsequent history of prose, not only in Latin but in European languages up to the 19th century, was said to be either a reaction against or a return to his style. Cicero introduced the Romans to the chief schools of Greek philosophy and created a Latin philosophical vocabulary (with neologisms such as ''evidentia'', ''humanitas'', ''qualitas'', ''quantitas'', and ''essentia'') distinguishing himself as a translator and philosopher.

Though he was an accomplished orator and successful lawyer, Cicero believed his political career was his most important achievement. It was during his consulship that the second Catilinarian conspiracy attempted to overthrow the government through an attack on the city by outside forces, and Cicero suppressed the revolt by summarily and controversially executing five conspirators. During the chaotic latter half of the 1st century BC marked by civil wars and the dictatorship of Gaius Julius Caesar, Cicero championed a return to the traditional republican government. Following Julius Caesar's death, Cicero became an enemy of Mark Antony in the ensuing power struggle, attacking him in a series of speeches. He was proscribed as an enemy of the state by the Second Triumvirate and consequently executed by soldiers operating on their behalf in 43 BC after having been intercepted during an attempted flight from the Italian peninsula. His severed hands and head were then, as a final revenge of Mark Antony, displayed on The Rostra.

Petrarch's rediscovery of Cicero's letters is often credited for initiating the 14th-century Renaissance in public affairs, humanism, and classical Roman culture. According to Polish historian Tadeusz Zieliński, "the Renaissance was above all things a revival of Cicero, and only after him and through him of the rest of Classical antiquity." The peak of Cicero's authority and prestige came during the 18th-century Enlightenment, and his impact on leading Enlightenment thinkers and political theorists such as John Locke, David Hume, Montesquieu and Edmund Burke was substantial. His works rank among the most influential in European culture, and today still constitute one of the most important bodies of primary material for the writing and revision of Roman history, especially the last days of the Roman Republic. Provided by Wikipedia

1
by Cicero, Marcus Tullius
Project Gutenberg

2
by Cicero, Marcus Tullius
Published 1793
Typis D. Humphreys: Impensis autem J. Crukshank, W. Young, T. Dobson, M. Carey, H. & P. Rice, C. Cist, & P. Hall

3
by Cicero, Marcus Tullius
Published 1714
apud J. Nicholson, J. & B. Sprint, B. Tooke, R. Wilkin, D. Midwinter, B. Course, & W. Innys

4
by Cicero, Marcus Tullius
Published 1738
typis academicis. Sumtibus Corn. Crownfield. Prostant apud J. & P. Knapton, & Franc. Changuion bibliopolas Londinenses

5
by Cicero, Marcus Tullius
Published 1709
typis academicis. Impensis Edm. Jeffery, Bibliopolae Cantabr. Prostant venales Londini apud Jac. Knapton, in Coemeterio D. Pauli

6
by Cicero, Marcus Tullius
Published 1757
excudebant Rob. et And. Foulis

7
by Cicero, Marcus Tullius
Published 1767
printed for J. Dickson, front of the Exchange, Edinburgh; and for T. Cadell in the Strand, London

8
by Cicero, Marcus Tullius
Published 1773
printed for T. Carnan and F. Newbery, jun. at Number 65, in St. Paul's Church-Yard

9
by Cicero, Marcus Tullius
Published 1752
printed for T. Waller, opposite Fetter-Lane, Fleet-Street
Subjects: '; ...Cicero, Marcus Tullius / Correspondence...

10
by Cicero, Marcus Tullius
Published 1756
printed for G. Keith, at the Bible-And-Crown, in Gracechurch-Street

13
by Cicero, Marcus Tullius
Published 1772
printed for J. Dodsley
Subjects: '; ...Cicero, Marcus Tullius / Correspondence...

14
by Cicero, Marcus Tullius
Published 1722
typis Gulielmi Sayes, impensis J. Knapton, R. Wilkin, J. & B. Sprint, B. & S. Tooke, D. Midwinter, B. Cowse, G. Mortlock, W. & J. Innys, & A. Ward

15
by Cicero, Marcus Tullius
Published 1778
printed for T. Whieldon and Co, No. 43, opposite Fetter-Lane, Fleet-Street
Subjects: '; ...Cicero, Marcus Tullius / Translations into English / Early works to 1800...

16
by Cicero, Marcus Tullius
Published 1745
printed for T. Waller
Subjects: '; ...Cicero, Marcus Tullius / Translations into English / Early works to 1800...

17
by Cicero, Marcus Tullius
Published 1758
printed for T. Waller, at the Crown and Mitre in Fleet-Street
Subjects: '; ...Cicero, Marcus Tullius / Translations into English / Early works to 1800...

18
by Cicero, Marcus Tullius
Published 1781
printed by H. Goldney, for T. Cadell, In The Strand
Subjects: '; ...Cicero, Marcus Tullius / Translations into English / Early works to 1800...

19
by Cicero, Marcus Tullius
Published 1716
printed for Jacob Tonson, at Shakespear's-Head, over-against Catherine-Street in the Strand

20
by Cicero, Marcus Tullius
Published 1988
De Gruyter