Cicero

Marcus Tullius Cicero ).}} ( ; ; 3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, lawyer, scholar, philosopher, writer and Academic skeptic, who tried to uphold optimate principles during the political crises that led to the establishment of the Roman Empire. His extensive writings include treatises on rhetoric, philosophy and politics. He is considered one of Rome's greatest orators and prose stylists and the innovator of what became known as "Ciceronian rhetoric". Cicero was educated in Rome and in Greece. He came from a wealthy municipal family of the Roman equestrian order, and served as consul in 63 BC.

His influence on the Latin language was immense. He wrote more than three-quarters of extant Latin literature that is known to have existed in his lifetime, and it has been said that subsequent prose was either a reaction against or a return to his style, not only in Latin but in European languages up to the 19th century. Cicero introduced into Latin the arguments of the chief schools of Hellenistic philosophy and created a large amount of Latin philosophical vocabulary via lexical innovation (e.g. neologisms such as , ''generator'', , ''infinitio'', , ), almost 150 of which had been introduced from the translation of Greek philosophical terms, demonstrating himself as both an adept scholar of philosophy as well as a skilled translator.

Though he was an accomplished orator and successful lawyer, Cicero believed his political career was his most important achievement. It was during his consulship that the Catiline conspiracy attempted to overthrow the government through an attack on the city by outside forces, and Cicero suppressed the revolt by summarily and controversially executing five conspirators without trial, with the support of the Senate. During the chaotic middle period of the first century BC, marked by civil wars and the dictatorship of Julius Caesar, Cicero championed a return to the traditional republican government. Following Caesar's death, Cicero became an enemy of Mark Antony in the ensuing power struggle, attacking him in a series of speeches. He was proscribed as an enemy of the state by the Second Triumvirate and consequently executed by soldiers operating on their behalf in 43 BC, having been intercepted during an attempted flight from the Italian peninsula. His severed hands and head were then, as a final revenge of Mark Antony, displayed on the Rostra.

Petrarch's rediscovery of Cicero's letters is often credited for initiating the 14th-century Renaissance in public affairs, humanism, and classical Roman culture. According to Polish historian Tadeusz Zieliński, "the Renaissance was above all things a revival of Cicero, and only after him and through him of the rest of Classical antiquity." The peak of Cicero's authority and prestige came during the 18th-century Enlightenment, and his impact on leading Enlightenment thinkers and political theorists such as John Locke, David Hume, Montesquieu, and Edmund Burke was substantial. His works rank among the most influential in global culture, and today still constitute one of the most important bodies of primary material for the writing and revision of Roman history, especially the last days of the Roman Republic. Provided by Wikipedia

1
by Cicero, Marcus Tullius
Published 2011
Akademie

2
by Cicero, Marcus Tullius
Published 2011
Open Book Publishers
Other Authors: ...Cicero, Marcus Tullius...

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by Cicero, Marcus Tullius
Published 2000
De Gruyter

4
by Cicero, Marcus Tullius
Published 1998
De Gruyter

5
by Cicero, Marcus Tullius
Published 1993
De Gruyter

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by Cicero, Marcus Tullius
Published 1706
e Theatro Sheldoniano, impensis Jo. Stephens; & prostant venales apud Ja. Knapton ad Insigne Coronae in Coemeterio D. Pauli Lond

13
by Cicero, Marcus Tullius
Published 1778
Philadelphia: printed by B. Franklin. London: re-printed for Fielding and Walker, Pater-Noster Row

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by Cicero, Marcus Tullius
Published 1799
printed for Lackington, Allen, and Co. Vernor and Hood, Cadell and Davies, Darton and Harvey, J. Walker, R. Lea, I Nunn, T. Hurst, W. Otridge And Son, Ogilvy And Son, And W. J. And J. Richardson

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by Cicero, Marcus Tullius
Published 1736
printed for C. Rivington, at the Bible and Crown in St. Paul's Church-Yard

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by Cicero, Marcus Tullius
Published 1716
printed at the Theatre, anno Dom

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by Cicero, Marcus Tullius
Published 1780
in aedibus academicis, excudebat Andreas Foulis, Academiae Typographus
Other Authors: ...Cicero, Marcus Tullius...

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by Cicero, Marcus Tullius
Published 1783
e typographeo Clarendoniano