Cicero

First-century AD bust of Cicero in the [[Capitoline Museums]], Rome Marcus Tullius Cicero, abbreviated from ''Marcus Tullius Marci fīlius Marci nepōs Cicero'', which in English translates to "Marcus Tullius, son of Marcus, grandson of Marcus, Cicero". The name is infrequently anglicized as Tully ().}} ( ; ; 3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC), most commonly known as simply Cicero, was a Roman statesman, lawyer and Academic Skeptic philosopher who played an important role in the politics of the late Republic and vainly tried to uphold republican principles during the crises that led to the establishment of the Roman Empire. His extensive writings include treatises on rhetoric, philosophy and politics, and he is considered one of Rome's greatest orators and prose stylists. He came from a wealthy municipal family of the Roman equestrian order, and served as consul in the year 63 BC.

His influence on the Latin language was immense: it has been said that subsequent prose was either a reaction against or a return to his style, not only in Latin but in European languages up to the 19th century. Cicero introduced into Latin the arguments of the chief schools of Hellenistic philosophy and created a Latin philosophical vocabulary with neologisms such as ''evidentia'', ''humanitas'', ''qualitas'', ''quantitas'', and ''essentia'', distinguishing himself as a translator and philosopher.

Though he was an accomplished orator and successful lawyer, Cicero believed his political career was his most important achievement. It was during his consulship that the second Catilinarian conspiracy attempted to overthrow the government through an attack on the city by outside forces, and Cicero suppressed the revolt by summarily and controversially executing five conspirators. During the chaotic latter half of the 1st century BC marked by civil wars and the dictatorship of Gaius Julius Caesar, Cicero championed a return to the traditional republican government. Following Julius Caesar's death, Cicero became an enemy of Mark Antony in the ensuing power struggle, attacking him in a series of speeches. He was proscribed as an enemy of the state by the Second Triumvirate and consequently executed by soldiers operating on their behalf in 43 BC after having been intercepted during an attempted flight from the Italian peninsula. His severed hands and head were then, as a final revenge of Mark Antony, displayed on the Rostra.

Petrarch's rediscovery of Cicero's letters is often credited for initiating the 14th-century Renaissance in public affairs, humanism, and classical Roman culture. According to Polish historian Tadeusz Zieliński, "the Renaissance was above all things a revival of Cicero, and only after him and through him of the rest of Classical antiquity." The peak of Cicero's authority and prestige came during the 18th-century Enlightenment, and his impact on leading Enlightenment thinkers and political theorists such as John Locke, David Hume, Montesquieu and Edmund Burke was substantial. His works rank among the most influential in European culture, and today still constitute one of the most important bodies of primary material for the writing and revision of Roman history, especially the last days of the Roman Republic. Provided by Wikipedia

1
by Cicero, Marcus Tullius
Published 1776
printed for B. White, at Horace's Head, in Fleet-Street

2
by Cicero, Marcus Tullius
Published 1729
e Theatro Sheldoniano. 1729. Prostant venales apud Sam. Wilmot Bibliopol. Oxon

3
by Cicero, Marcus Tullius
Published 1714
e typographeo Clarendoniano, an. Dom. MDCCXIV. Impensis Stephani Fletcher Bibliopolæ

4
by Cicero, Marcus Tullius
Published 1716
e typrographeo Clarendoniano, An. Dom. MDCCXVI. Impensis Stephani Fletcher Bibliopolae

5
by Cicero, Marcus Tullius
Published 1714
e typographeo Clarendoniano, an. Dom. MDCCXVIII. Impensis Stephani Fletcher Bibliopolae

6
by Cicero, Marcus Tullius
Published 1721
typis academicis. Sumptibus Cornelii Crownfield, Celeberrimae Academiae Typographi. Prostant apud Jacobum Knapton, Rob. Knaplock, & Paullum Vaillant, bibliopolas Londinenses

7
by Cicero, Marcus Tullius
Published 1722
typis G. Bowyer; impensis G. & J. Newton, in vico dicto Little-Britain; & B. & S. Tooke ad Portam Medii Templi in vico dicto Fleet-Street

8
by Cicero, Marcus Tullius
Published 1783
e typographeo Clarendoniano
Subjects: '; ...Cicero, Marcus Tullius / Concordances / Early works to 1800...

9
by Cicero, Marcus Tullius
Published 1749
impensis Gul. Thurlbourn. Prostant Londini apud J. Beecroft, P. Vaillant, J. Nourse, et R. Dodsley
Subjects: '; ...Cicero, Marcus Tullius / Correspondence / Early works to 1800...

10
by Cicero, Marcus Tullius
Published 1744
printed for T. Waller, at the Crown and Mitre, opposite Fetter-Lane, in Fleet-Street

11
by Cicero, Marcus Tullius
Published 1745
printed for R. Dodsley, and sold by M. Cooper at the Globe in Pater-Noster-Row

12
by Cicero, Marcus Tullius
Published 1727
printed by H. P. for J. Wilford, at the three Golden Flower-de-Luces in Little-Britain

13
by Cicero, Marcus Tullius
Published 1704
printed by S. Holt, for Geo. Sawbride [sic], at the Three Flower De-Luces in Little-Britain

15
by Cicero, Marcus Tullius
Published 1799
printed for T. Cadell and W. Davies

16
by Cicero, Marcus Tullius
Published 1758
printed for John Whiston, and Benj. White, in Fleet-Street. Sold also by T. and J. Merrill at Cambridge, and J. Fletcher at Oxford

17
by Cicero, Marcus Tullius
Published 1799
printed for Lackington, Allen, and Co. Vernor and Hood, Cadell and Davies, Darton and Harvey, J. Walker, R. Lea, I Nunn, T. Hurst, W. Otridge And Son, Ogilvy And Son, And W. J. And J. Richardson
Subjects: '; ...Cicero, Marcus Tullius / Correspondence...

19
by Cicero, Marcus Tullius
Published 1702
ex officinâ Eliz. Redmayne
Subjects: '; ...Cicero, Marcus Tullius...

20
by Cicero, Marcus Tullius
Published 1790
sold by T. Adams, in the Strand
Subjects: '; ...Cicero, Marcus Tullius / Early works to 1800...