James Buchanan

James Buchanan James Buchanan Jr. ( ''''; April 23, 1791June 1, 1868) was an American lawyer and politician who served as the 15th president of the United States (1857–1861). He previously served as Secretary of State (1845–1849) and represented Pennsylvania in both houses of the U.S. Congress. He was a states' rights advocate, and minimized the role of the federal government in the nation's final years of slavery. Historians condemn Buchanan for not addressing the issue of slavery, and not forestalling the secession of the southern states over it, and he is consistently rated by scholars as among the nation's worst presidents.

Buchanan was a prominent lawyer in Pennsylvania and won his first election to the state's House of Representatives as a Federalist. In 1820, he was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives and retained that post for 11 years, aligning with Andrew Jackson's Democratic Party. He served as Jackson's Minister to Russia (1832). He won election in 1834 as a U.S. senator from Pennsylvania and also held that position for 11 years. In 1845 he was appointed to serve as President James K. Polk's Secretary of State, and in 1853 he was named as President Franklin Pierce's Minister to the United Kingdom.

Beginning in 1844, Buchanan became a regular contender for the Democratic party's presidential nomination. He was finally nominated in 1856, defeating incumbent Franklin Pierce and Senator Stephen A. Douglas at the Democratic National Convention. Buchanan and running mate John C. Breckinridge of Kentucky defeated Republican John C. Frémont and Know-Nothing former president Millard Fillmore to win the 1856 presidential election.

Buchanan supported the decision of the Supreme Court in the Dred Scott case, which denied a slave's petition for freedom. He also joined with Southern leaders in attempting to admit Kansas to the Union as a slave state. He thereby angered not only the Republicans but also many Northern Democrats. Buchanan honored his pledge to serve only one term, and supported Breckinridge's unsuccessful candidacy in the 1860 presidential election, which was won instead by Republican Abraham Lincoln. Just weeks after Lincoln was elected as Buchanan's successor, southern states began seceding from the U.S., and the American Civil War started. Provided by Wikipedia

1
by Buchanan, James
Published 1768
printed for A. Millar, and sold by T. Cadell in the Strand

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by Buchanan, James
Published 1822
Printed for Black, Young & Young, by W. Smith

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by Buchanan, James
Published 1767
printed for J. Wren, at the Bible, opposite the New Exchange Buildings in the Strand

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by Buchanan, James
Published 1766
printed for Edward and Charles Dilly, in the Poultry

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by Buchanan, James
Published 1784
Printed by Nathaniel Coverly, for John Norman, and sold at his shop, near the Boston-stone

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by Buchanan, James
Published 1769
Printed for G. Keith, J. Johnson and J. Payne, G. Pearch, F. Blyth, and G. Burnet

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by Buchanan, James
Published 1840
[s.n.]
Subjects: '; ...Buchanan, James / 1791-1868...

14
by Buchanan, James
Published 1834
[s.n.]

17
by Buchanan, James
Published 1769
printed for G. Keith, J. Johnson and J. Payne, G. Pearch, F. Blyth, and G. Burnett

18
by Buchanan, James
Published 1757
printed for R. Baldwin, at the Rose in Pater-Noster-Row