Jeremy Bentham

Portrait by [[Henry William Pickersgill]] Jeremy Bentham (; 15 February 1748 [O.S. 4 February 1747] – 6 June 1832) was an English philosopher, jurist, and social reformer regarded as the founder of modern utilitarianism.

Bentham defined as the "fundamental axiom" of his philosophy the principle that "it is the greatest happiness of the greatest number that is the measure of right and wrong." He became a leading theorist in Anglo-American philosophy of law, and a political radical whose ideas influenced the development of welfarism. He advocated for individual and economic freedoms, the separation of church and state, freedom of expression, equal rights for women, the right to divorce, and (in an unpublished essay) the decriminalising of homosexual acts. He called for the abolition of slavery, of the death penalty, and of physical punishment, including that of children. He has also become known as an early advocate of animal rights. Though strongly in favour of the extension of individual legal rights, he opposed the idea of natural law and natural rights (both of which are considered "divine" or "God-given" in origin), calling them "nonsense upon stilts". Bentham was also a sharp critic of legal fictions.

Bentham's students included his secretary and collaborator James Mill, the latter's son, John Stuart Mill, the legal philosopher John Austin, as well as Robert Owen, one of the founders of utopian socialism. He "had considerable influence on the reform of prisons, schools, poor laws, law courts, and Parliament itself."

On his death in 1832, Bentham left instructions for his body to be first dissected, and then to be permanently preserved as an "auto-icon" (or self-image), which would be his memorial. This was done, and the auto-icon is now on public display at University College London (UCL). Because of his arguments in favour of the general availability of education, he has been described as the "spiritual founder" of UCL. However, he played only a limited direct part in its foundation. Provided by Wikipedia

1
by Bentham, Jeremy
Published 1776
printed for T. Payne, at the Mews-Gate; P. Elmsly, opposite Southampton-Street in the Strand; and E. Brooke, in Bell-Yard, Temple-Bar

4
by Bentham, Jeremy
Published 1795
printed for J. Debrett, opposite Burlington-House, Piccadilly

5
by Bentham, Jeremy
Published 1791
Dublin, printed London, reprinted; and sold by T Payne at the Mews Gate

7
by Bentham, Jeremy
Published 1778
printed for T. Payne and Son, at the Mews-Gate; T. Cadell, and P. Elmsly, in the Strand; and E. Brooke, Bell-Yard, Temple-Bar

8
by Bentham, Jeremy
Published 1793
Printed for T. Payne near the Mews Gate, Charing-Cross

10
by Bentham, Jeremy
Published 1789
printed for T. Payne, and Son, at the Mews Gate

12
by Bentham, Jeremy
Published 1788
printed for Messrs. D. Williams, Colles, White, Byrne, Lewis, Jones, and Moore

13
by Bentham, Jeremy
Published 1793

16
by Bentham, Jeremy
Published 1776
printed for J. Sheppard, W. Whitestone, J. Hoey, J. Potts, J. Williams, W. Colles, T. Walker, T. Armitage, W. Spotswood, C. Jenkin, J. Hillary, J. Beatty, and C. Talbot

19
by Bentham, Jeremy
Published 1826
Printed for Hunt and Clarke