Manuel Álvares

Manuel Álvares (1526 – 30 December 1582) was a Jesuit educator in Portugal.

Álvares was born on the island of Madeira. In 1546 he entered the Society of Jesus, taught the classical languages with great success, and was rector of the colleges of Coimbra and Évora. He died at Évora.

Among the more than three hundred Jesuits who have written text-books on different languages, he takes the foremost place. His Latin grammar was adopted as a standard work by the Ratio Studiorum, or Plan of Studies, of the Jesuits. Perhaps no other grammar has been printed in so many editions; Carlos Sommervogel, in his "Bibliothèque de la compagnie de Jésus," devotes twenty-five columns to a list of about four hundred editions of the whole work, or parts of it, published in Europe, Asia, and America. There exist also numerous translations into various languages. An edition with a Chinese translation appeared in Shanghai in 1869. A very interesting edition is one published in Japan in 1594, with partial translation into Japanese. An English edition, "An Introduction to the Latin Tongue, or First Book of Grammar", appeared in 1686. In many editions the text of Álvares is changed considerably, others are abridgments. The original work contains many valuable suggestions for the teacher. On this account it is more than a mere grammar; it is also a work on the method of teaching Latin, and gives an insight into the system of the old Jesuit colleges.

The book was the subject of several controversies. Even Jesuits, in the "Trial Ratio" of 1586, raised six objections, and desired, particularly, a better arrangement of some parts and greater clarity. After the publication of Latin grammars by De Condren, the Oratorian, and by Lancelot, of Port-Royal, both in French, the work of Álvares was frequently censured, because it was written in Latin, and "presupposed what was to be learnt".

Still, there were advantages in the course followed by Álvares. To be sure, to beginners everything was explained in the vernacular; but the early use of a grammar written in Latin accustomed the pupils to speaking and writing that language. Without some practice of this kind a thorough knowledge of a language can hardly be obtained, and in former centuries a facility in speaking and writing Latin, which was the universal language of the educated world, was of the greatest importance. Provided by Wikipedia

1
by Alvares, Manuel
Published 1770
Typis Isaaci Jackson, in vico dicto Meath-street: prostant apud Johannem Kelly, ad Insignia Stationariorum in vico dicto Mary's Lane

2
by Alvares, Manuel
Published 1735
apud Aaronem Ward ad Insignia Regia in Little-Britain; et Richardum Hett, ad insigne Bibliorum et Diadematis in the Poultry

4
by Alvares, Manuel
Published 1726
apud Joannem Clark & Richardum Hett ad insigne Bibliorum & Diadematis in the Poultry; et Aaronem Ward ad Insignia Regia in Little-Britain. Venit etiam à Samuele Chandler ad Decussatas Claves in the Poultry

5
by Alvares, Manuel
Published 1719
apud Joannem Clark ad insigne Bibliorum & Coronae in vico Poultry, & Aaronem Ward ad Anatem in Little-Britain. MDCCXIX. (pret. 4d.)

6
by Alvares, Manuel
Published 1794
Printed by Robert Napper, for B. Dugdale, No.150, Capel-Street

7
by Alvares, Manuel
Published 1786
Printed for Richard Cross, Bridge-Street, and Robert Jackson

8
by Alvares, Manuel
Published 1794
Printed by Robert Napper, for Richard Cross, Bridge-Street, and R. M. Jackson, Meath-Street

9
by Alvares, Manuel
Published 1749
Typis & sumptibus Marthæ Pilkington, in Vico dicto Castle-Street

10
by Alvares, Manuel
Published 1729
typis Samuelis Fulleri, impensis ejusdem ad Insigne Globi Terraquei, in Vico dicto Meath-Street, & Edvardi Hamilton, in Angulo vicorum High-Street, & Christ-Church-Lane, apud quos prostant venales