Spain

[[Lady of Elche Spain ( ), officially the Kingdom of Spain (), is a country mostly located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula. Its territory also includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, and the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country (Morocco). Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are also part of Spanish territory. The country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar; to the north and northeast by France, Andorra, and the Bay of Biscay; and to the west and northwest by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean.

With an area of , Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, and the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population (about 47 million), Spain is the sixth largest in Europe and the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid; other major urban areas include Barcelona, Valencia, Seville, Málaga, Bilbao and OviedoGijónAvilés.

Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek, Celtic and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named ''Hispania'', based on the earlier Phoenician name ''Sp(a)n'' or ''Spania''. At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established relatively independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi, Alans and Vandals. Eventually, the Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically, ecclesiastically and legally all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was then documented as Hispania.

In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada. This led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castille, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion. Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs.

In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes +570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were also many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez. The most famous Spanish literary work, ''Don Quixote'', was also published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state. It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations (UN), the European Union (EU), the Eurozone, the Council of Europe (CoE), the Organization of Ibero-American States (OEI), the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization (WTO) and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a ''de facto'' member of the group. Provided by Wikipedia

1
by Spain, Don
Published 2009
Springer New York

2
by Spain, Eimear
Published 2011
Cambridge University Press
... Spain considers how the emotions experienced by those who act due to threats, both human and natural...

3
by Lavelle, P., Spain, A.
Published 2001
Springer Netherlands
.... It is this deficiency that the two authors‚ Patrick Lavelle and Alister Spain‚ have wished to address in writing...

4
by Spain, Jim C.
Published 1995
Springer US

5
by Bourbaki, Nicolas, Spain, Philip
Published 2004
Springer Berlin Heidelberg

6
by Dresselhaus, Mildred S., Dresselhaus, Gene, Sugihara, Ko, Spain, Ian L.
Published 1988
Springer Berlin Heidelberg

7
by Pozzo-Buenno
Published 1727
Printed by George Faulkner in Christ-Church Yard, where all manner of printing work is done at reasonable rates
...Spain...

8
s.n
Subjects: '; ...Taxation / Law and legislation / Spain / Early works to 1800...

10
Published 1797
F. Suriá y Burgada
Subjects: '; ...Catalonia (Spain) / Commerce...

11
Published 1829
[s.n.]
Subjects: '; ...Spain / Commercial policy...

12
Published 1829
[s.n.]
Subjects: '; ...Spain / Commercial policy...

13
Published 1797
Impr. de la viuda de Ibarra
Subjects: '; ...Pawnbroking / Spain...

15
Published 1627
Por la viuda de Luis Sanchez
Subjects: '; ...Price regulation / Spain / Early works to 1800...

16
by Martinez de Torres, Julian
Published 1792
s.n
Subjects: '; ...Finance, Public / Spain...

18
Published 1794
Imprenta real
Subjects: '; ...Postal service / Law and legislation / Spain...

19
Published 1627
s.n
Subjects: '; ...Money / Spain / Tables / Early works to 1800...