Holy Roman Empire

The Holy Roman Empire, historiographically denoted as the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation (; Deutscher Nation), was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western and Central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars. The largest territory of the empire after 962 was the Kingdom of Germany, though it also included the neighbouring Kingdom of Bohemia and Kingdom of Italy, plus numerous other territories, and soon after the Kingdom of Burgundy was added. However, while by the end of the 15th century the Empire was still in theory composed of three major blocks – Italy, Germany, and Burgundy – in practice only the Kingdom of Germany remained, with the Burgundian territories lost to France and the Italian territories, ignored in the Imperial Reform, although formally part of the Empire, splintered into numerous de facto independent territorial entities. The status of Italy in particular changed throughout the 15th to 19th centuries; some territories like Piedmont-Savoy became increasingly independent, while others like Lombardy and Tuscany became more dependent due to falling directly under the dominions of the Habsburg emperors and their satellite houses.

The external borders of the Empire did not change noticeably from the Peace of Westphalia – which acknowledged the exclusion of Switzerland and the Northern Netherlands, and the French protectorate over Alsace – to the dissolution of the Empire. By then, it largely contained only German-speaking territories, plus the Kingdom of Bohemia, the southern Netherlands and lands of Carniola. At the conclusion of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815, most of the Holy Roman Empire was included in the German Confederation.

On 25 December 800, Pope Leo III crowned the Frankish king Charlemagne as Emperor, reviving the title in Western Europe, more than three centuries after the fall of the earlier ancient Western Roman Empire in 476. In theory and diplomacy, the Emperors were considered ''primus inter pares'', regarded as first among equals among other Roman Catholic monarchs across Europe. The title continued in the Carolingian family until 888 and from 896 to 899, after which it was contested by the rulers of Italy in a series of civil wars until the death of the last Italian claimant, Berengar I, in 924. The title was revived again in 962 when Otto I, King of Germany, was crowned emperor, fashioning himself as the successor of Charlemagne and beginning a continuous existence of the empire for over eight centuries. Some historians refer to the coronation of Charlemagne as the origin of the empire, while others prefer the coronation of Otto I as its beginning. Scholars generally concur, however, in relating an evolution of the institutions and principles constituting the empire, describing a gradual assumption of the imperial title and role.

The exact term "Holy Roman Empire" was not used until the 13th century, before which the empire was referred to variously as ''universum regnum'' ("the whole kingdom", as opposed to the regional kingdoms), ''imperium christianum'' ("Christian empire"), or ''Romanum imperium'' ("Roman empire"), but the Emperor's legitimacy always rested on the concept of ''translatio imperii'', that he held supreme power inherited from the ancient emperors of Rome. The dynastic office of Holy Roman Emperor was traditionally elective through the mostly German prince-electors, the highest-ranking noblemen of the empire; they would elect one of their peers as "King of the Romans" to be crowned emperor by the Pope, although the tradition of papal coronations was discontinued in the 16th century.

The empire never achieved the extent of political unification as was formed to the west in the relatively centralised Kingdom of France, evolving instead into a decentralised, limited elective monarchy composed of hundreds of sub-units: kingdoms, principalities, duchies, counties, prince-bishoprics, Free Imperial Cities, and eventually even individuals enjoying imperial immediacy, such as the imperial knights. The power of the emperor was limited, and while the various princes, lords, bishops, and cities of the empire were vassals who owed the emperor their allegiance, they also possessed an extent of privileges that gave them ''de facto'' independence within their territories. Emperor Francis II dissolved the empire on 6 August 1806 following the creation of the Confederation of the Rhine by Emperor Napoleon I the month before. Provided by Wikipedia

1
Published 1725
Nella Regia Stamperia d'Antonino Epiro
Subjects: '; ...Spain / Foreign relations / Holy Roman Empire...

2
Published 1725
Nella Regia Stamperia d'Antonino Epiro
Subjects: '; ...Holy Roman Empire / Foreign economic relations / Spain...

3
by Hagelstein, David Thomanus von
Published 1692
Zu finden bey Lorentz Kronigern und Gottlieb Göbels seel. Erben
Subjects: '; ...Coinage / Holy Roman Empire / Early works to 1800...

4
by Geizkofler, Zacharias
Published 1621
[s.n.]
Subjects: '; ...Coinage / Holy Roman Empire / Early works to 1800...

6
by Zinzendorf, Philipp Ludwig
Published 1727
printed for A. Moore, near St. Paul's
...Holy Roman Empire...

7
Published 1725
printed by Sam. Buckley
...Holy Roman Empire...

9
Published 1725
Chez E.H. Fricx
Subjects: '; ...Holy Roman Empire / Foreign economic relations / Spain...

10
Published 1749
Gedr. bey G. Kursböck
Subjects: '; ...Livestock / Taxation / Holy Roman Empire...

11
Published 1752
Gedr. bey J.T. Trattner
Subjects: '; ...Commerce / Holy Roman Empire...

13
by Charles
Published 1548
s.n
Subjects: '; ...Coinage / Law and legislation / Holy Roman Empire / Early works to 1800...

14
Published 1705
printed, and sold by H. Montgomery, Bookseller in Cornhill, and J. Nutt, near Stationer's-Hall
...Holy Roman Empire...

15
Published 1705
Printed for G. Gregg, next door to Northumberland House Charing Cross, H. Montgomery, bookseller in cornhill, and J. Nutt, near Stationer's-Hall
...Holy Roman Empire...

16
Published 1680
s.n
Subjects: '; ...Mints / Holy Roman Empire / Early works to 1800...

17
Published 1680
s.n
Subjects: '; ...Mints / Holy Roman Empire / Early works to 1800...

18
Published 1622
Im Directorio bey Peter Schmieden ... zu finden
...Niedersächsischer Kreis (Holy Roman Empire)...

20
Published 1568
Durch Cunradt Horn
Subjects: '; ...Coinage / Law and legislation / Holy Roman Empire / Niedersächsischer Kreis...