Holy Roman Empire

The Holy Roman Empire (; ), also known as Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western and Central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars. The largest territory of the empire after 962 was the Kingdom of Germany, though it also included the neighboring Kingdom of Bohemia and Kingdom of Italy, plus numerous other territories, and soon after the Kingdom of Burgundy was added. Its size gradually diminished over time, particularly from 1648 onward, and by the time of its dissolution, it largely contained only German-speaking territories (although Switzerland and East Prussia were not included), plus the Kingdom of Bohemia which was bordered by the German lands on three sides. At the conclusion of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815, most of the Holy Roman Empire was included in the German Confederation.

On 25 December 800, Pope Leo III crowned the Frankish king Charlemagne as Emperor, reviving the title in Western Europe, more than three centuries after the fall of the earlier ancient Western Roman Empire in 476. The title continued in the Carolingian family until 888 and from 896 to 899, after which it was contested by the rulers of Italy in a series of civil wars until the death of the last Italian claimant, Berengar I, in 924. The title was revived again in 962 when Otto I was crowned emperor, fashioning himself as the successor of Charlemagne and beginning a continuous existence of the empire for over eight centuries. Some historians refer to the coronation of Charlemagne as the origin of the empire, while others prefer the coronation of Otto I as its beginning. Scholars generally concur, however, in relating an evolution of the institutions and principles constituting the empire, describing a gradual assumption of the imperial title and role.

The exact term "Holy Roman Empire" was not used until the 13th century, but the concept of ''translatio imperii'', the notion that he—the sovereign ruler—held supreme power inherited from the ancient emperors of Rome, was fundamental to the prestige of the emperor. The office of Holy Roman Emperor was traditionally elective, although frequently controlled by dynasties. The mostly German prince-electors, the highest-ranking noblemen of the empire, usually elected one of their peers as "King of the Romans", and he would later be crowned emperor by the Pope; the tradition of papal coronations was discontinued in the 16th century.

The empire never achieved the extent of political unification as was formed to the west in France, evolving instead into a decentralized, limited elective monarchy composed of hundreds of sub-units: kingdoms, principalities, duchies, counties, prince-bishoprics, Free Imperial Cities, and other domains. The power of the emperor was limited, and while the various princes, lords, bishops, and cities of the empire were vassals who owed the emperor their allegiance, they also possessed an extent of privileges that gave them ''de facto'' independence within their territories. Emperor Francis II dissolved the empire on 6 August 1806 following the creation of the Confederation of the Rhine by emperor Napoleon I the month before. Provided by Wikipedia

1
Published 1725
Nella Regia Stamperia d'Antonino Epiro
Subjects: '; ...Spain / Foreign relations / Holy Roman Empire...

2
by Geizkofler, Zacharias
Published 1621
[s.n.]
Subjects: '; ...Coinage / Holy Roman Empire / Early works to 1800...

3
Published 1749
Gedr. bey G. Kursböck
Subjects: '; ...Livestock / Taxation / Holy Roman Empire...

4
Published 1752
Gedr. bey J.T. Trattner
Subjects: '; ...Commerce / Holy Roman Empire...

5
Published 1725
Chez E.H. Fricx
Subjects: '; ...Holy Roman Empire / Foreign economic relations / Spain...

6
by Charles
Published 1548
s.n
Subjects: '; ...Coinage / Law and legislation / Holy Roman Empire / Early works to 1800...

8
Published 1725
Nella Regia Stamperia d'Antonino Epiro
Subjects: '; ...Holy Roman Empire / Foreign economic relations / Spain...

9
by Hagelstein, David Thomanus von
Published 1692
Zu finden bey Lorentz Kronigern und Gottlieb Göbels seel. Erben
Subjects: '; ...Coinage / Holy Roman Empire / Early works to 1800...

11
Published 1705
Printed for G. Gregg, next door to Northumberland House Charing Cross, H. Montgomery, bookseller in cornhill, and J. Nutt, near Stationer's-Hall
...Holy Roman Empire...

12
Published 1705
printed, and sold by H. Montgomery, Bookseller in Cornhill, and J. Nutt, near Stationer's-Hall
...Holy Roman Empire...

14
by Zinzendorf, Philipp Ludwig
Published 1727
printed for A. Moore, near St. Paul's
...Holy Roman Empire...

15
Published 1725
printed by Sam. Buckley
...Holy Roman Empire...

16
Published 1680
s.n
Subjects: '; ...Mints / Holy Roman Empire / Early works to 1800...

17
Published 1680
s.n
Subjects: '; ...Mints / Holy Roman Empire / Early works to 1800...

18
Published 1568
Durch Cunradt Horn
Subjects: '; ...Coinage / Law and legislation / Holy Roman Empire / Niedersächsischer Kreis...

19
Published 1572
[s.n.]
Subjects: '; ...Coinage / Law and legislation / Holy Roman Empire / Niedersächsischer Kreis...

20
Published 1622
Im Directorio bey Peter Schmieden ... zu finden
...Niedersächsischer Kreis (Holy Roman Empire)...