France

One of the [[Lascaux France (), officially the French Republic (, ), is a country consisting of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It borders Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland, Monaco, and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a combined area of and a total population of 67.07 million (). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice. France, including its overseas territories, has the most time zones of any country, with a total of 12.

During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a collection of Celtic tribes. The area was annexed by Rome in 51 BC, developing a distinct Gallo-Roman culture that laid the foundation of the French language. The Germanic Franks arrived in 476 and formed the Kingdom of Francia, which became the heartland of the Carolingian Empire. The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned the empire, with West Francia becoming the Kingdom of France in 987. Under King Philip Augustus, France emerged as a major European power in the Middle Ages. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe's dominant cultural, political, and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, establishing one of modern history's earliest republics and drafting the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day.

In the 19th century, Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (1803–15) shaped the course of European and world history. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and later dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and nearly all other colonies became independent in the 1960s, with most retaining close economic and military connections with France.

France retains its centuries-long status as a global centre of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world's fifth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving over 89 million foreign visitors in 2018. France is a developed country with the world's seventh-largest economy by nominal GDP, and the tenth-largest by PPP. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, and human development. It is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council and an official nuclear-weapon state. France is a founding and leading member of the European Union and the Eurozone, and a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the World Trade Organization (WTO), and La Francophonie. Provided by Wikipedia

1
by Gentleman in France
Published 1732
[Printed at Elutheropolis [sic]

2
by France, Anatole
Project Gutenberg

3
by France, Robert
Published 1999
Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

4
by France, Jérôme
Published 2001
École française de Rome

5
by France, Bev
Published 2012
SensePublishers

6
by Bernik, France
Published 1993
Sagner

7
by France, Anatole
Published 1970
Birkhäuser Basel

8 ...Lettre d'un officier de l'armée navale de France. English...

9
by Meslé, France, Vallin, Jacques
Published 2012
Springer Netherlands
Table of Contents: '; ...: The crisis of the 1930s: Jacques Vallin, France Meslé, Sergei Adamets and Serhii Pyroshkov -- Chapter 2...

10
by Napoléon <France, Empereur, I.>
Published 1810
Levrault

11
by Twine, France Winddance
Published 1998
Rutgers University Press

13
by Marie-France Fauvet-Berthelot
Published 1986
Centro de estudios mexicanos y centroamericanos

14
by Malone-France, Derek
Published 2012
Palgrave Macmillan US
...Malone-France brings together important themes from religious studies, philosophy, and political...

15
by France, Alan, Roberts, Steven
Published 2017
Palgrave Macmillan UK

16
by France, Anna Kaziunas
Published 2014
Helion

17
by LaFrance, W. Curt
Published 2011
Henry Stewart Talks

18
by France-Marie Renard-Casevitz
Published 1979
Institut français d’études andines

19
by Marie-France Houdart-Morizot
Published 1976
Institut français d’études andines

20
by Houde, Marie-France
Published 2007
OECD Publishing