Immediate health consequences of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C)

Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) has been performed in various forms for millennia and involves the partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. In this systematic review we addressed harm occurring during th...

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Main Authors: Berg, Rigmor C., Underland, Vigdis (Author)
Corporate Author: Nasjonalt kunnskapssenter for helsetjenesten
Format: eBook
Language:English
Published: Oslo Norwegian Knowledge Centre for the Health Services 2014, March 2014
Subjects:
Online Access:
Collection: National Center for Biotechnology Information - Collection details see MPG.ReNa
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100 1 |a Berg, Rigmor C. 
245 0 0 |a Immediate health consequences of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C)  |h Elektronische Ressource  |c Berg, Rigmor, Underland, Vigdis 
260 |a Oslo  |b Norwegian Knowledge Centre for the Health Services  |c 2014, March 2014 
300 |a 1 PDF file (pages 3-5) 
653 |a Iraq 
653 |a Genitalia, Female / injuries 
653 |a Africa 
653 |a Yemen 
653 |a Circumcision, Female / adverse effects 
653 |a Women's Health 
700 1 |a Underland, Vigdis  |e [author] 
700 1 |a Berg, Rigmor C. 
710 2 |a Nasjonalt kunnskapssenter for helsetjenesten 
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989 |b NCBI  |a National Center for Biotechnology Information 
500 |a English summary excerpted from full report in Norwegian: Umiddelbare helsekonsekvenser av kvinnelig kjønnslemlestelse. - Excerpt from Systematic review no. 08-2014 
856 |u http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK464798  |3 Volltext 
082 0 |a 610 
520 |a Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) has been performed in various forms for millennia and involves the partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. In this systematic review we addressed harm occurring during the cutting or alteration modification process and the short-term period. We included 56 observational studies that documented immediate complications. There were 14 studies in which two or more groups of girls and women with different types of FGM/C were compared with regards to the occurrence of one or more acute complications. There are three main findings:1. The most common immediate FGM/C complications were: pain, excessive bleeding, swelling, problems with wound healing, urine retention.2. The girls and women undergoing FGM/C often suffered more than one immediate complication.3. There were few differences in risk of immediate complications among different types of FGM/C, but there might be a greater risk of immediate complications for women with FGM/C type III (infibulation) compared to types I-II. There was evidence of under-reporting of complications. However, the findings show that the FGM/C procedure unequivocally causes immediate, and typically several, health complications during the FGM/C procedure and the short-term period. Each of the most common complications occurred in more than one of every ten girls and women who undergo FGM/C. The participants in these studies had FGM/C types I through IV, thus immediate complications such as bleeding and swelling occur in setting with all forms of FGM/C. Even FGM/C type I and type IV 'nick', the forms of FGM/C with least anatomical extent, presented immediate complications. The results document that multiple immediate and quite serious complications can result from FGM/C. These results should be viewed in light of long-term complications, such as obstetric and gynecological problems, and protection of human rights