Alexander Pope

Pope around 1727 Alexander Pope (21 May 1688 – 30 May 1744) is regarded as the greatest English poet of his age, the early eighteenth century. He is best known for his satirical and discursive poetry—to include ''The Rape of the Lock'', ''The Dunciad'', and ''An Essay on Criticism''—as well as for his translation of Homer. After Shakespeare, he is the second most quoted writer in the English language, as per ''The Oxford Dictionary of Quotations'', with some of his verses having even become popular idioms in common parlance (e.g., Damning with faint praise). He is a master of the heroic couplet.

Pope’s poetic career testifies to his indomitable spirit in the face of disadvantages, of health and of circumstance. As the poet and his family were Catholics, they fell subject to prohibitive measures which effectively reversed the prosperity of their ilk after the abdication of James II; one of which banned them from living within ten miles of London and another from attending public school or university. For this reason, except for a few spurious Catholic schools, Pope was largely self-educated. He was taught to read by his aunt and became a lover of books; he picked up French, Italian, Latin, and Greek by himself and discovered Homer at six. As a child, Pope survived being once trampled by a cow, but at the age of twelve began struggling with tuberculosis of the spine, or Potts’ Disease, along with fits of crippling headaches which would dog him throughout his life.

He showcased his precocious metrical skill in the year 1709 with the publication of ''Pastorals'', his first major poems. They won him instant fame. By the time Pope was twenty-three, he had written ''An Essay on Criticism'', released in 1711. A kind of poetic manifesto in the vein of Horace’s ''Ars Poetica'', the essay was met with enthusiastic attention and won Pope a wider circle of prominent friends, most notably Joseph Addison and Richard Steele, who had recently started collaborating on the influential ''The Spectator''. The critic John Dennis, having located an ironic and veiled portrait of himself, was outraged by what he considered the impudence of the younger author. Dennis hated Pope for the rest of his life, and, save for a temporary reconciliation, dedicated his meager talents to insulting him in print, to which Pope retaliated in kind, making him the butt of much satire.

''The Rape of the Lock'', perhaps the poet's most famous poem, appeared first in 1712, followed by a revised and enlarged version in 1714. When Lord Petre forcibly snipped off a lock from Miss Arabella Fermor's head (the "Belinda" of the poem), the incident gave rise to a high-society quarrel between the families. With the idea of allaying this, Pope treated the subject in a playful and witty mock-heroic epic. The narrative poem brings into focus the onset of acquisitive individualism and conspicuous consumption, where purchased goods assume dominance over moral agency.

In 1717 appeared a folio comprising a collection of his poems, together with two new ones written about the passion of love. They were ''Verses to the Memory of an Unfortunate Lady'' and the famous proto-romantic poem ''Eloisa to Abelard''. Though Pope never married, about this time, he became strongly attached to Lady M. Montagu, whom he indirectly referenced in the popular poem ''Eloisa to Abelard'', and to Martha Blount, with whom his friendship continued throughout his life.

In his career as a satirist, Pope made his share of enemies as the critics, politicians, and certain other prominent figures felt the sting of his sharpwitted satires; so virulent were some that he at one point deemed it necessary to keep pistols on his person while walking his dog. After 1738, Pope wrote little, toyed with the idea of a patriotic epic called ''Brutus'', but only the opening lines survive. He mainly revised and expanded his masterpiece ''The Dunciad''. Book Four appeared in 1742, and a complete revision of the whole poem in the following year. In this version, he replaced Lewis Theobald, with the poet laureate Colley Cibber, as "king of dunces". But his real target is the writer and Whig politician Horace Walpole. By now Pope's health was failing, and when told by his physician, on the morning of his death, that he was better, Pope replied: "Here am I, dying of a hundred good symptoms". Provided by Wikipedia

1
by Pope, Alexander
Published 1760
London, printed: Philadelphia re-printed, by W. Dunlap, at the newest-printing-office, in Market-Street, for G. Noel, book-seller, in New-York

2
by Pope, Alexander
Published 1787
London, printed: Boston: re-printed by Thomas and John Fleet, at the Bible and Heart in Cornhill

3
by Pope, Alexander
Published 1786
Printed by Hugh Gaine, at the Bible, in Hanover-Square

4
by Pope, Alexander
Published 1796
Printed by John Tiebout, for E. Duyckinck & Co. and P.A. Mesier, booksellers and stationers, Pearl-Street
Subjects: '; ...Pope, Alexander / 1688-1744...

5
by Pope, Alexander
Published 1795
by Nathaniel Heaton, Jun

6
by Pope, Alexander
Published 1795
by Nathaniel Heaton, Jun

7
by Pope, Alexander
Published 1800
Printed and sold by Samuel Hall, no. 53, Cornhill

8
by Pope, Alexander
Published 1787
Printed and sold, by Nathaniel Patten

9
by Pope, Alexander
Published 1736
printed for H. Lintot

10
by Pope, Alexander
Published 1736
printed for L. Gilliver, and J. Clarke, at Homer's Head against St. Dunstan's Church in Fleetstreet
Subjects: '; ...Pope, Alexander / 1688-1744 / Correspondence / Early works to 1800...

11
by Pope, Alexander
Published 1737
printed by J. Wright for J. Knapton in Ludgate-Street, L. Gilliver in Fleetstreet, J. Brindley in New Bond-Street, and R. Dodsley in Pall-Mall

12
by Pope, Alexander
Published 1737
printed by J. Wright for J. Knapton in Ludgatestreet, L. Gilliver in Fleetstreet, J. Brindley in New Bond street, and R. Dodsley in Pall-Mall

13
by Pope, Alexander
Published 1748

14
by Pope, Alexander
Published 1743
printed for R. Dodsley, and sold by T. Cooper in Pater-Noster-Row

15
by Pope, Alexander
Published 1751
printed by Richard James, at Newton's Head in Dame-Street
Subjects: '; ...Pope, Alexander / 1688-1744 / Correspondence...

16
by Pope, Alexander
Published 1769
printed for J. Dodsley, in Pall-Mall

17
by Pope, Alexander
Published 1736
Dublin, printed, London, reprinted for T. Cooper

18
by Pope, Alexander
Published 1746
printed for M. Cooper in Pater-Noster-Row

19
by Pope, Alexander
Published 1718
printed for E. Curll, in Fleet-Street

20
by Pope, Alexander
Published 1736
London, printed: Dublin, re-printed by and for G. Faulkner; A. Bradley and T. Moore