Marcus Aurelius

A marble bust of Marcus Aurelius at the [[Musée Saint-Raymond]], [[Toulouse]], [[France]] Marcus Aurelius ( or ; ; 26 April 121 – 17 March 180) was Roman emperor from 161 to 180 and a Stoic philosopher. He was the last of the rulers known as the Five Good Emperors, and the last emperor of the Pax Romana, an age of relative peace and stability for the Roman Empire. He served as Roman consul in 140, 145, and 161.

The son of the praetor Marcus Annius Verus (III) and the wealthy heiress Domitia Lucilla, Marcus was raised by his mother and by his grandfather, Marcus Annius Verus (II), after his father died. His uncle, Antoninus Pius, adopted him shortly before becoming emperor in 138. Now heir to the throne, Marcus studied Greek and Latin under tutors such as Herodes Atticus and Marcus Cornelius Fronto. He kept in close correspondence with Fronto for many years afterwards. Marcus married Antoninus' daughter Faustina in 145. Antoninus died following an illness in 161.

The reign of Marcus Aurelius was marked by military conflict. In the East, the Roman Empire fought successfully with a revitalized Parthian Empire and the rebel Kingdom of Armenia. Marcus defeated the Marcomanni, Quadi, and Sarmatian Iazyges in the Marcomannic Wars; however, these and other Germanic peoples began to represent a troubling reality for the Empire. He modified the silver purity of the Roman currency, the denarius. The persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire is believed to have increased during his reign. The Antonine Plague broke out in 165 or 166 and devastated the population of the Roman Empire, causing the deaths of five million people.

Unlike some of his predecessors, Marcus chose not to adopt an heir. His children included Lucilla (who married Lucius Verus, co-emperor from 161 to 169) and Commodus, whose succession after Marcus has become a subject of debate among both contemporary and modern historians. The Column and Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius still stand in Rome, where they were erected in celebration of his military victories. ''Meditations'', the writings of "the philosopher" – as contemporary biographers called Marcus – are a significant source of the modern understanding of ancient Stoic philosophy. They have been praised by fellow writers, philosophers, monarchs, and politicians centuries after his death. Provided by Wikipedia

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by Marcus Aurelius
BiblioBytes

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by Marcus Aurelius
Published 1701
printed for Richard Sare, at Grays-Inn-Gate in Holborn
Subjects: '; ...Marcus Aurelius / Emperor of Rome / 121-180...

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by Marcus Aurelius
Published 1708
printed for Richard Sare, at Grays-Inn Gate in Holborn

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by Marcus Aurelius
Published 1753
printed for Robert Main at Homer's Head in Dame-Street
Subjects: '; ...Marcus Aurelius / Emperor of Rome / 121-180...

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by Marcus Aurelius
Published 1755
printed for S. Bladon, at the Paper-Mill, in Pater-Noster Row

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by Marcus Aurelius
Published 1702
printed for R. Sare, and to be sold by William Davies at the Black-Bull in Cornhil

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by Marcus Aurelius
Published 1726
printed for J. Darby, A. Bettesworth, F. Fayram, J. Pemberton, R. Williamson, J Hooke, C. Rivington, F. Clay, J. Batley, and E. Symon

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by Marcus Aurelius
Published 1749
printed by Robert & Andrew Foulis, Printers to the University
Subjects: '; ...Marcus Aurelius / Emperor of Rome / 121-180...

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by Marcus Aurelius
Published 1747
printed by T. Parker, for the translator: and sold by Charles Corbett, at Addison's-Head, over-against St. Dunstan's Church in Fleetstreet

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by Marcus Aurelius
Published 1752
printed by Robert and Andrew Foulis, Printers to the University
Subjects: '; ...Marcus Aurelius / Emperor of Rome / 121-180...

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by Marcus Aurelius
Published 1742
printed by Robert Foulis; and sold by him at the College; by Mess. Hamilton and Balfour, in Edinburgh; and by Andrew Millar, over against St. Clements Church, London
Subjects: '; ...Marcus Aurelius / Emperor of Rome / 121-180...

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by Marcus Aurelius
Published 1766
London: printed in the year, 1747. Glasgow: re-printed for Robert Urie

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by Marcus Aurelius
Published 1792
printed by R. Cruttwell, for G. G. J. and J. Robinson, Pater-Noster-Row, London
Subjects: '; ...Marcus Aurelius / Emperor of Rome / 121-180...

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by Marcus Aurelius
Published 1726
printed for the executors of Richard Sare, and sold by R. Williamson

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by Marcus Aurelius
Published 1798
imprimé chez Biggs et Cottle

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by Marcus Aurelius
Published 1716
printed for J. Roberts, in Warwick-Lane

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by Marcus Aurelius
Published 1764
printed by Robert & Andrew Foulis Printers to the University
Subjects: '; ...Marcus Aurelius / Emperor of Rome / 121-180...

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by Marcus Aurelius
Bibliobytes
Subjects: '; ...Marcus Aurelius,...