Niccolò Machiavelli

Portrait of Machiavelli by [[Santi di Tito]] Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli (, ; ; 3 May 1469 – 21 June 1527) was an Italian Renaissance diplomat, philosopher and writer, best known for ''The Prince'' (''Il Principe''), written in 1513. He has often been called the father of modern political philosophy or political science.

For many years he served as a senior official in the Florentine Republic with responsibilities in diplomatic and military affairs. He wrote comedies, carnival songs, and poetry. His personal correspondence is of high importance to historians and scholars. He worked as secretary to the Second Chancery of the Republic of Florence from 1498 to 1512, when the Medici were out of power.

Machiavelli's name came to evoke unscrupulous politicians of the sort Machiavelli advised most famously in ''The Prince.'' Machiavelli considered political battles, not through a lens of morality, but as though they are a board game with established rules. His experience showed him that politics has always been played with deception, treachery and crime. He also notably said that a ruler who is establishing a kingdom or a republic, and is criticized for his deeds, including violence, should be excused when the intention and the result is beneficial. Machiavelli’s ''Prince'' was much read as a manuscript long before it was published in 1532 and the reaction was mixed. Some considered it a straightforward description of "the evil means used by bad rulers; others read in it evil recommendations to tyrants to help them maintain their power."

The term ''Machiavellian'' often connotes political deceit, deviousness, and realpolitik. Even though Machiavelli has become most famous for his work on principalities, scholars also give attention to the exhortations in his other works of political philosophy. While much less well known than ''The Prince'', the ''Discourses on Livy'' (composed ) is often said to have paved the way of modern republicanism. Provided by Wikipedia

by Machiavelli, Niccolò
Published 1595
Printed by T.C. for VV. P

by Machiavelli, Niccolò
Published 1768
1768. Si trova in Parigi appresso Marcello Prault

by Machiavelli, Niccolò
Published 1675
Printed for John Starkey
Other Authors: '; ...Machiavelli, Niccolò...

by Machiavelli, Niccolò
Published 1589

by Machiavelli, Niccolò
Published 1965
VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften

by Machiavelli, Niccolò
Published 1775
printed for T. Davies, Russel-Street, Covent-Garden; J. Dodsley, Pall-Mall; J. Robson, New Bond-Street; G. Robinson, Pater-Noster-Row; T. Becket, T. Cadell, and T. Evans, Strand

by Machiavelli, Niccolò
Published 1743
Printed by Ed. Bate, for James Kelburn, bookseller, at the Three Golden Balls in George's-lane

by Machiavelli, Niccolò
Published 1772
stampate per Tommaso Davies, in Londra

by Machiavelli, Niccolò
Published 1762
printed for Thomas Davies, in Russel-Street, Covent-Garden; Thomas Waller, in Fleet-Street; R. and J. Dodsley, in Pall-Mall; James Fletcher, in St. Paul's Church-Yard; Mess. Balfour and Hamilton, Edinburgh; and Mr. James Hoey, junior, at Dublin

by Machiavelli, Niccolò
Published 1761
printed for Robert Urie

by Machiavelli, Niccolò
Published 1760
[printed by Jacopo Giusti]
Subjects: '; ...Machiavelli, Niccolo / 1469-1527 / Correspondence...

by Machiavelli, Niccolò
Published 1720
printed by T.W. [Thomas Wood?] for A. Churchill, R. Bonwick, T. Goodwin, J. Walthoe, M. Wotton, S. Manship, B. Tooke, R. Wilkin, R. Smith, R. Robinson, and T. Ward

by Neville, Henry
Published 1711
Other Authors: '; ...Machiavelli, Niccolò...