Regarded as one of the fiercest generals of his time, he succeeded Artemio Ricarte as the Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines. He sought to apply his background in military science to the fledgling army. A sharpshooter himself, he organized professional guerrilla soldiers later called the "Luna Sharpshooters" and the "Black Guard". His three-tier defense, now known as the Luna Defense Line, gave the American troops a hard campaign in the provinces north of Manila. This defense line culminated in the creation of a military base in the Cordillera.
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