Japan

Japan, or , formally , '' or ''. In Japanese, the name of the country as it appears on official documents, including the country's constitution, is , meaning "State of Japan". The short name is also often used officially. In English, the official name of the country is simply "Japan".|group=nb}} is an island country in East Asia, located in the Pacific Ocean off the northeast coast of the Asian mainland. It is bordered on the west by the Sea of Japan and extends from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea in the south. The Japanese archipelago consists of four major islands—Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, and Kyushu—and thousands of smaller islands, covering around . With a population of more than 125 million as of 2020, Japan is the 11th most populous country. Tokyo is its capital and largest city. Japan is divided into 47 administrative prefectures and eight traditional regions. About three-quarters of the country's terrain is mountainous and heavily forested, concentrating its agriculture and highly urbanized population along its eastern coastal plains. Greater Tokyo is the world's most populous metropolitan area, with more than 38 million inhabitants as of 2016. Part of the Pacific Ring of Fire, Japan's islands are prone to destructive earthquakes and tsunamis.

The first known habitation of the archipelago dates to the Upper Paleolithic, with the beginning Japanese Paleolithic dating to circa 36,000 BC. Between the fourth and sixth centuries, its kingdoms were united under an emperor in Nara, and later Heian-kyō. From the 12th century, actual power was held by military dictators () and feudal lords (), and enforced by warrior nobility (''samurai''). After rule by the Kamakura and Ashikaga shogunates and a century of warring states, Japan was unified in 1600 by the Tokugawa shogunate, which implemented an isolationist foreign policy. In 1853, a United States fleet forced Japan to open trade to the West, which led to the end of the shogunate and the restoration of imperial power in 1868. In the Meiji period, the Empire of Japan pursued rapid industrialization and modernization, as well as militarism and overseas colonization. In 1937, Japan invaded China, and in 1941 attacked the United States and European colonial powers, entering World War II as an Axis power. After suffering defeat in the Pacific War and two atomic bombings, Japan surrendered in 1945 and came under Allied occupation. After the war, the country underwent rapid economic growth, although its economy has stagnated since 1990.

Japan is a constitutional monarchy with a bicameral legislature, the National Diet. A great power and the only Asian member of the G7, Japan has constitutionally renounced its right to declare war, but maintains one of the world's strongest militaries. A highly developed country with one of the world's largest economies, Japan is a global leader in science and technology and the automotive, robotics, and electronics industries. It has one of the world's longest life expectancies, though is undergoing population decline. Japan's culture is well known around the world, including its art, cuisine, film, music, and popular culture, which includes prominent comics, animation, and video game industries. Provided by Wikipedia

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by The Iron and Steel Institute of Japan
Published 1987
Springer Netherlands

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Published 2003
Springer Japan
Other Authors: ...The Japan Environmental Council...

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Project Gutenberg
...Japan...

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Project Gutenberg
...Japan...

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Published 2005
Springer Japan
Other Authors: ...Japan Environemntal Council (JEC)...

9
Published 2016
Springer Nature Singapore
Other Authors: ...Chemical Innovation, Japan Association for...

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Published 2018
Springer Nature Singapore
Other Authors: ...The Surface Science Society of Japan...

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Published 2016
Springer Japan
Other Authors: ...The Society of Fiber Science and Techno, Japan...

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Published 2018
Springer Nature Singapore
Other Authors: ...The Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Society of Japan...

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Published 2012
Springer Japan
...The Ceramic Society of Japan...

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Published 2001
Springer Japan
Other Authors: ...Japan Association for Evolutionary Economics...

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by Akiyama, J.
Published 1988
North-Holland
...Japan Conference on Graph Theory and Applications ( 1986, Hakone-machi, Japan)...

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by Hiratsuka, Daisuke
Published 2010
Edward Elgar
...Ajia Keizai Kenkyūjo (Japan)...

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by Inomata, Satoshi
Published 2011
Edward Elgar
...Ajia Keizai Kenkyūjo (Japan)...

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Published 1982
Colegio de México, Programa de Energéticos
...Ajia Keizai Kenkyūjo (Japan)...

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Published 2022
Japan Consortium for Glycobiology and Glycotechnology
...Japan Consortium for Glycobiology and Glycotechnology...

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Published 2000
Springer Japan
Other Authors: ...The Japan Environmental Council...