Julius Caesar

The [[Tusculum portrait]], possibly the only surviving sculpture of Caesar made during his lifetime. Archaeological Museum, [[Turin]], [[Italy]] Gaius Julius Caesar (Suetonius, ''Divus Julius'' 76.1). Official name after deification in 42 BC: ''Divus Iulius'' ("The Divine Julius").}} ( , ; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman general and statesman who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.

In 60 BC, Caesar, Crassus and Pompey formed the First Triumvirate, a political alliance that dominated Roman politics for several years. Their attempts to amass power as ''Populares'' were opposed by the ''Optimates'' within the Roman Senate, among them Cato the Younger with the frequent support of Cicero. Caesar rose to become one of the most powerful politicians in the Roman Republic through a string of military victories in the Gallic Wars, completed by 51 BC. During this time he both invaded Britain and built a bridge across the Rhine river, greatly extending Roman territory. These achievements and the support of his veteran army threatened to eclipse the standing of Pompey, who had realigned himself with the Senate after the death of Crassus in 53 BC. With the Gallic Wars concluded, the Senate ordered Caesar to step down from his military command and return to Rome. Leaving his command in Gaul would mean losing his immunity to criminal prosecution by his enemies; knowing this Caesar openly defied the Senate's authority by crossing the Rubicon and marching towards Rome at the head of an army. This began Caesar's civil war, which he won, leaving him in a position of near unchallenged power and influence.

After assuming control of government, Caesar began a program of social and governmental reforms, including the creation of the Julian calendar. He gave citizenship to many residents of far regions of the Roman Republic. He initiated land reform and support for veterans. He centralized the bureaucracy of the Republic and was eventually proclaimed "dictator for life" (Latin: "''dictator perpetuo''"). His populist and authoritarian reforms angered the elites, who began to conspire against him. On the Ides of March (15 March), 44 BC, Caesar was assassinated by a group of rebellious senators led by Brutus and Cassius, who stabbed him to death. A new series of civil wars broke out and the constitutional government of the Republic was never fully restored. Caesar's adopted heir Octavian, later known as Augustus, rose to sole power after defeating his opponents in the civil war. Octavian set about solidifying his power, and the era of the Roman Empire began.

Caesar was an accomplished author and historian as well as a statesman; much of his life is known from his own accounts of his military campaigns. Other contemporary sources include the letters and speeches of Cicero and the historical writings of Sallust. Later biographies of Caesar by Suetonius and Plutarch are also important sources. Caesar is considered by many historians to be one of the greatest military commanders in history. His cognomen was subsequently adopted as a synonym for "Emperor"; the title "Caesar" was used throughout the Roman Empire, giving rise to modern cognates such as Kaiser and Tsar. He has frequently appeared in literary and artistic works, and his political philosophy, known as Caesarism'','' inspired politicians into the modern era. Provided by Wikipedia

1
by Caesar, Julius
Published 1767
Typis Joannis Robertson. Veneunt autem apud Kincaid et Bell, W. Gray, J. Dickson, et J. Robertson

2
by Caesar, Julius
Published 1780
Impensis J. Rivington, J. Pote, L. Hawes, W. Clarke & R.Collins, W. Johnston, S. Crowder, T. Longman, B. Law, Z. Stuart, T. Cadell, G. Pearch, G. Keith, W. Ginger, W. Nicoll, S. Bladon, & R. Baldwin

3
by Caesar, Julius
Published 1706
typis T. M. impensis Tho. Newborough, D. Midwinter, Galf. Wale; & J. Hartley

4
by Caesar, Julius
Project Gutenberg

6
by Caesar, Julius
Published 1779
printed for J. Dodsley, in Pall-Mall

7
by Caesar, Julius
Published 1750
in aedibus academicis excudebant Robertus et Andreas Foulis Academiae Typographi

8
by Caesar, Julius
Published 1750
printed for J. and P. Knapton, in Ludgate-Street; S. Birt, in Ave-Mary-Lane; T. Longman, C. Hitch, M. Cooper, in Pater-Noster-Row; T. Osborne, in Gray's-Inn; J. Clarke, under the Royal Exchange; J. Hodges, on London-Bridge; E. Wicksteed, in New-Gate-Street; J. and J. Rivington, in St. Paul's Church-Yard; J. Ward, in Cornhill, opposite the Royal Exchange

9
by Caesar, Julius
Published 1745
[typis Gul. Strahan; impensis W. Innys, T. Woodward, A. Ward, S. Birt, C. Hitch [and 5 others in London]

11
by Caesar, Julius
Published 1788
printed by Brett Smith

12
by Caesar, Julius
Published 1768
Printed for L. Hawes, W. Clarke, and R. Collins, in Pater-noster-Row

13
by Caesar, Julius
Published 1770
printed by A. Murray and J. Cochran. For W. Sands, and A. Kincaid & J. Bell

15
by Caesar, Julius
Published 1790
Excudebat Joannes Wilson

17
by Caesar, Julius
Published 1719
E typographæo Mariæ Matthews. Impensis J. & B. Sprint, B. Tooke, D. Midwinter, A. Bettesworth, J. Bowyer, H. Clements, Gul. Taylor, T. Ward, Gul. & J. Innys, & Gul. Churchill

18
by Caesar, Julius
Published 1800
In ædibus academicis, excudebat Jacobus Mundell, academiæ typographus, pro Mundell et filio, Edinburgi

19
by Caesar, Julius
Published 1789
Printed for S. Wills, and sold by J. Walter, No. 169, Piccadilly

20
by Caesar, Julius
Published 1786
Excudebat Joannes Wilson. Veneunt autem apud G. Anderson, Sterlini; J. Duncan, J. et G. Shaw, J. et M. Robertson, Glascuæ; R. M'Lachlan, Dumfrisii