Johann Sebastian Bach

Portrait of Bach, aged 61, {{nowrap|by [[Elias Gottlob Haussmann|E. G. Haussmann]], 1748}} Johann Sebastian Bach. The last name appears as on OxfordDictionaries.com and in the ''Random House Unabridged Dictionary''.}} (28 July 1750) was a German composer and musician of the Baroque period. He is known for instrumental compositions such as the ''Art of Fugue'', the ''Brandenburg Concertos'', and the ''Goldberg Variations'', and for vocal music such as the ''St Matthew Passion'' and the Mass in B minor. Since the 19th-century Bach Revival he has been generally regarded as one of the greatest composers of the Western art musical canon.

The Bach family already counted several composers when Johann Sebastian was born as the last child of a city musician in Eisenach. After being orphaned at age 10, he lived for five years with his eldest brother Johann Christoph Bach, after which he continued his musical development in Lüneburg. From 1703 he was back in Thuringia, working as a musician for Protestant churches in Arnstadt and Mühlhausen and, for longer stretches of time, at courts in Weimar, where he expanded his organ repertory, and Köthen, where he was mostly engaged with chamber music. From 1723 he was employed as Thomaskantor (cantor at St. Thomas) in Leipzig. He composed music for the principal Lutheran churches of the city, and for its university's student ensemble Collegium Musicum. From 1726 he published some of his keyboard music. In Leipzig, as had happened during some of his earlier positions, he had difficult relations with his employer, a situation that was little remedied when he was granted the title of court composer by his sovereign, Augustus, Elector of Saxony and King of Poland, in 1736. In the last decades of his life he reworked and extended many of his earlier compositions. He died of complications after eye surgery in 1750 at the age of 65.

Bach enriched established German styles through his mastery of counterpoint, harmonic and motivic organisation, and his adaptation of rhythms, forms, and textures from abroad, particularly from Italy and France. Bach's compositions include hundreds of cantatas, both sacred and secular. He composed Latin church music, Passions, oratorios, and motets. He often adopted Lutheran hymns, not only in his larger vocal works, but for instance also in his four-part chorales and sacred songs. He wrote extensively for organ and for other keyboard instruments. He composed concertos, for instance for violin and for harpsichord, and suites, as chamber music as well as for orchestra. Many of his works employ contrapuntal genres such as fugue.

Throughout the 18th century Bach was mostly renowned as an organist, while his keyboard music, such as ''The Well-Tempered Clavier'', was appreciated for its didactic qualities. The 19th century saw the publication of some major Bach biographies, and by the end of that century all of his known music had been printed. Dissemination of scholarship on the composer continued through periodicals exclusively devoted to him, and publications such as the ''Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis'' (BWV, a numbered catalogue of his works) and new critical editions of his compositions. His music was further popularised through a multitude of arrangements, including the ''Air on the G String''. Provided by Wikipedia

1
by Bach
Published 2006
Wiley-Blackwell

2
by Bach
Published 2006
Wiley-Blackwell

3
by Bach, Alexander
Published 1997
Springer Berlin Heidelberg

4
by Bach, Volker
Published 2000
Springer Berlin Heidelberg

5
by Bach, Norbert
Published 2003
Gabler Verlag
... Management, Unternehmensführung und Organisation sowie an Führungskräfte in Unternehmen. Dr. Norbert Bach ist...

6
by Bach, Roland
Published 1990
Springer Berlin Heidelberg

7
by Bach, Sabine
Published 1998
Deutscher Universitätsverlag
.... Sabine Bach analysiert die praktische Relevanz dieser Aufgabe für die strategische Planung und das...

8
by Bach, Christine
Published 1999
Deutscher Universitätsverlag
... finanzielle Verluste. Christine Bach entwickelt, ausgehend von ökonomischen Modellen, ökonometrische...

9
by Bach, Volker
Published 1999
Springer Berlin Heidelberg

10
by Bach, Lüder
Published 1978
Birkhäuser Basel

11
by Bach, Maurizio
Published 2004
VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften

12
by Bach, K.
Published 1966
Springer Berlin Heidelberg

13
by Bach, C.
Published 1905
Springer Berlin Heidelberg

14
by Bach, Hans
Published 1999
Springer Berlin Heidelberg

15
by Bach, Hans
Published 2001
Springer Berlin Heidelberg

16
by Bach, Tobias
Published 2014
Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden
... internationalen Vergleich bestehen. Tobias Bach untersucht am Beispiel Deutschlands und Norwegens, wie sich...

17
by Bach, Norbert
Published 2009
Gabler
... gegenüber Tochtergesellschaften. Norbert Bach identifiziert rechtsnormkonforme Basismodelle der...

18
by Bach, Thomas
Published 2009
Gabler
... Netzwerkeffekten analysiert Thomas Bach mit Hilfe einer anspruchsvollen empirischen Erhebung das Informations- und...

19
by Bach, Maurizio
Published 2008
VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften
... Gesellschaftsbegriff selbst – im europäischen Raumbezug grundsätzlich neu zu bestimmen. Maurizio Bachs Analysen nutzen...